Silent Film

måndag, juli 10, 2017

Silent Film 1918

In part one of the Swedish Silent Film The Outlaw and His Wife (Berg Ejvind och hans hustru, 1918) Victor Sjostrom on screen portays a character that is introduced with an iris out, the previous scene which included secondary characters having concluded with an iris in; he is drinking from an Icelandic stream in medium close shot, the camera then cutting to a wider angle, it photographing him from the waist up to show more of the stream in the background. After a cut in, Sjöström cuts back to the shot, but only briefly, to show that his character is to the right of the screen, in profile, looking at what is offscreen to the left of the screen. Almost on action, he then abruptly cuts to a full shot in which the character has reversed the relation of his look to the side of the frame, his then cutting to a longshot as his character leaves the frame. He cuts to a vignette shot of his character facing the opposite direction that he does in the scene, and then to another accompanying a dialouge intertitle so that it is as though the line of dialouge has been delivered in close shot.
Throughout the rest of part one Victor Sjostrom carries the story forward, it introducing the woman he will marry in a sidelighted, near over the shoulder, near quarter shot, it being that she hires him for a month and then later makes him steward. While part two begins with establishing shots of the exterior, the horizon line often parallel to the top of the frame line ( a wall is later used to show a vertical division of frame as two lovers meet behind it), there is no interruption of continuity between it and part three, the two not linked by any camera device, but the scene is quickly moved to an interior. In part three she asks him to marry her and he tries to decline while declaring his love for her (Sjöström cuts back and forth between their dialouge and a retrospective scene during which he uses iris in and iris out to show ellipsis).
The rest of the film is of their journey together. In part four he cuts from a three quarter full shot of his character facing the right of the screen going towards her to embrace her to a shot of both of them in medium shot, her in his arms while he is facing the left of the screen. Rather than using suture between shot reverse shots, he holds the camera on them during the dialouge and concludes it by cutting to a closer angle of his character having lowered his body and putting his head on her stomach. During the dialouge which beings part seven an expository intertitle accompanies his interpolating a shot which would have been included in a previous scene and the shot from part four of his being near to her is repeated, their dialouge during while snowbound then continuing.
 Sjöström had written four hundred letters to his co-star Edith Erastoff, the woman he had married. About the film, Einar Lauritzen wrote, "But Sjöström never let the drama of human relations get lost in the grandeur of the scenery." Tom Milne sees the film as being an example of a director articulating "the sense of space and liberty in the use of landscape which was already one of the distinguishing marks of the Swedish cinema."
Par Lagerkvist published the essay Modern Theater (Teater) in 1918, it purporting, and possibly rightly so, that the theater of Ibsen lacked what was needed for then modern audiences. 1919 saw the publication of Par Lagerkvist's play The Secret of Heaven (Himlens hemlighet). Agnes von Krusenstjerna that year published the volume Helenas fösta karlek.
Bille August has recently filmed an adaptation of Lagerlof's Jerusalem- for Victor Sjöström and AB Svenska Biograteatern it became The Sons of Ingmar (Ingmarssonera,1918) starring Harriet Bosse and Tore Svennberg with the director and Karin, Daughter of Ingmar (Karin Ingmarsdotter 1920, six reels), starring Tora Teje, Harriet Bosse and Bertil Malmstedt with the director, thier having been filmed by cinematographer Julius Jaenzon and the screenplays to both film's having had been being Sjöström's; for Molander, Ingmar's Inheritance (Ingmarsarvet, 1925) with Marta Hallden and Mona Martensson and To the East (Till Osterland, 1926). Both star Lars Hanson and co-starring Molander. It had been Mauritz Stiller that had visited Selma Lagerlöf in Dalecarli to discuss the filming of adaptations to the novel. Sjöström had in fact hoped to film Liljecrona's Home rather than Jerusalem. Writing about The Sons of Ingmar, Bengt Forslund notes, "The most striking change that Sjöström introduces in his screenplay is to treat, daringly, the Kingdom of Heaven as a realistic setting...The scenery provides comic relief without seeming ridiculous. " Shooting the film mostly on location, "Sjöström developed dramatic moments that do not have the same intensity in the book" (Forslund). Forslund concludes by writing, "Otherwise, I still find The Sons of Ingmar less cinematic than The Outlaw and His Wife, less personal in its narrative technique." Of the actors in the film, he remarks, "Harriet Bosse seems a little miscast in the role of Brita, which certainly should have been played by an actress ten years younger." In 1918, the first films to be directed by Sidney Franklin, who would later direct Greta Garbo in the silent film Wild Orchids, appeared in theaters, among them being Bride of Fear (five reels), The Safety Curtain (five reels) with Norma Talmadge, The Forbidden City (five reels) and Her Only Way (six reels), both films also starring Norma Talmadge. That year Fred Niblo, who would later direct Greta Garbo in the silent film The Mysterious Lady as well as Norma Talmadge in Camille (1927, nine reels), also began directing, his films having been The Marriage Ring, Fuss and Feathers (five reels), Happy Though Married (five reels) and When Do We Eat?. Director Paul Powell during 1918 teamed Rudolph Valentino and Marry Warren for the film All Night (five reels).
In 1919, Victor Sjöström wrote and directed His Lord's Will (His Grace's Will, Hans nads testamente) from the writings of Hjalmar Bergman. His Lord's Will (1940), starring Olof Sandborg, Barbro Kollberg and Alf Kjellin and scripted by Stina Bergman was directed by Per Lindberg. During 1919 the novel God's Orchid, written by Swedish playwright Hjalmar Bergman, would be published, followed in 1921 by the novel Thy Rod and Thy Staff and in 1930 by Jac the Clown.
Also in 1919, the Swedish director Ivan Hedqvist directed The Downy Girl. John W. Brunius that year directed the film The Girl of Solbakken (Synnove Solbakken), based on the novel written by Bjornstjerne Bjornson in 1857, the assistant director with Brunius having been Einar Bruun. Starring Lars Hanson and Karin Molander, it was the first film in which the actresses Ellen Dall, Ingrid Sandahl and Solveig Hedengran would each appear. The film reunited Sam Ask with John W. Bruinus, their both having co-written the script, as with Masterkatten i stovlar. Tytti Soila, in regard to the editing of the film writes, "The film's conflict of ideas is condensed in a sequence where there is cross-cutting between a religious revival meeting at Synnove's home and young people celebrating Midsummer by dancing in a meadow." Einar Bruun in 1919 directed the film Surrogatet, with Karin Molander for Filmindustri Scandia, Stockholm.

      Danish Film director Robert Dinesen in 1919 filmed the first of two films in Sweden, Jefthas dottar, with Signe Kolthoff, the second having been Odets redskap with Astri Torsell and Clara Schonfeld filmed in 1922.

Conrad Nagel appeared in his first films, The Lion and the Mouse (Tom Terriss, five reels), Redhead and Little Women (H. Knoles, six reels), with Dorothy Bernard, Isabel Lamon and Lillian Hall. Theda Bara was to appear in A Woman There Was, directed by J. Gordon Edwards. She wrote "How I became a Vampire" for the June 1919 issue of Forum magazine and was interviewed by Olga Petrova for Shadowland Magazine in 1920 and for Motion Picture Magazine in 1922, both instances of one actor interviewing another.

The selcted poems of Carl Gustaf Verner von Heidenstam were published in 1919. The Swedish poet had published the volume Nya Dikterin in 1915. He is the author of historical novel Karolinerna.
Sir Arne's Treasure (Herr Arne's pengar 1919, seven reels), with Mary Johnson, co-scripted by Molander, continued Sjöström's filming of the novels of Selma Lagerlöf, its director Mauritz Stiller. The film was photographed by Julius Jaenzon. Ingmar Bergman has said, "I think Stiller with his Erotikon and Herr Arne's Treasure is alot of fun. And his Atonement of Gosta Berling, too, is a fresh, powerful, vital film."

Where Selma Lagerlof and Mauritz Stiller had differred was on adaptation; Stiller perhaps seeing film as more visual, or theatrical, Gösta Werner having written that "Stiller later regretted preserving the long winded intertitles copied from the novel" (Tytti Soila) while filming Sir Arne's Treasure, or it may have having had been being that Stiller, as a compliment to Lagerlöf, had begun searching for a connection to the theater that both he and Gustav Molander had studied in Helsinki and similarities within Scandanavian literature. Of the film, Robert Payne writes, "he employed every trick known to cinema: close ups, dissolves, masks, superimposed images, sudden changes of tempo- a slow dreamy pace for the visionary scenes and an unbelieveably fast pace for the scenes of fighting...The film was tinted, thus giving it a heightened sense of reality." Author on Scandinavian Film Forsyth Hardy remarked upon the editing of the film by writing, "It also had a visual harmony, absent from some of the earlier films where the transition from interior to exterior was too abrupt." Wanda Rothgardt also appears in the film.
The Song of the Scarlet Flower (Sangen om den eldroda blomman, 1919), was to star Lars Hanson and Edith Erastoff. The Song of the Scarlet Flower (1956) with Gunnel Lindblom and Anita Björk was directed by Gustaf Molander. The tinting of the first film provides a contrast between its individual scenes, moods and uses of nature as a background, its narrative following a structure of seperate chapters.

Particularly interested in the interrelated components of each film being part of the film in its entirety, David Bordwell writing with Kristin Thompson, also regards the emotion of the spectator during any sequence of a film as being related to the viewing of the film in its entirety; seperate scenes that are tinted belong to the film in its entirety- the film after it has been edited. Narrative and stylistic elements in film form are often interrelated. Long before Bordwell, Raymond Spttiswoode had written, "The film director is continually analysing his material into sections, which, in a great variety of ways, can be altered to suit his purpose. At the same time he is synthesizing these sections into larger units which represent his attitude toward the world, and reveal the design he finds displayed in it. The analysis is an analysis of structure; of the filmic components which the director discerns in the natural world."
Lucy Fischer in fact remarks upon the narrative unity with Jacques Feyder's The Kiss, noting that to view the film as an entirety, the spectator must combine different events from seperate sequences, connecting the plot events centered around Garbo's character. Oddly, she later discusses the background to narrative as conveying the thematic, not in as much as man's relationship to nature can depict the emotion inherent within storyline, as often in the films of Stiller and Sjöström, but in that the mise en scene of the silent films of Greta Garbo, in its being dramatic, provides an embellishment of the narrative through its spatial composition of the image- it being Garbo that is crossing the set and sitting into the shot, it being a melodrama taking place within a world in which she can be otherworldly. Raymond Spottiswoode, writing in 1933, as well saw film as being comprised of its component parts. The sequence is seen as a series of shots that taken as part of the film as a whole add to its untiy. Spottiswoode describes there being implicational montage, where the sequences are seen in their entirety, their then containing within them content that has a relation to the film as a whole through implication, a series of shots producing its effect, creating its significance, in combination with other sequences in the film.
Greta Garbo photographer William Daniels continued his early career as second camerman under the direction of Eric von Strohiem, one film having had been being Blind Husbands (eight reels, 1919), starring Fay Holderness and Francellia Billington, another having been the film The Devil's Passkey (1920, seven reels), starring Una Tevelyan, Mae Busch and Maud George. Although one of the best films of the decade, the silent Blind Husbands, was concerned with marriage and the marital, one actress that had made several marriage dramas had been Katherine MacDonald. Of those she had appeared in were The Beauty Market (Campbell, 1919, nine reels), The Woman Thou Gavest Me, The Notorious Miss Lisle (1920) and Passion's Playground (1920).

     To add to any new look at marriage that was taking place as Hollywood peered through the keyhole into a modernity of what was being shown of the bedroom, DeMille in 1919 directed Why Change Your Husband (six reels), Male and Female (nine reels) with Lila Lee and For Better or Worse (seven reels), his having begun a series of films on marital relations in 1918 with Old Wives for New (six reels), each film scripted by Jeanie Macpherson. Macpherson, who had begun writing screenplays for DeMille with the 1915 film The Captive, starring Blanche Sweet, in 1920 continued with the director by scripting the film Something to Think About (seven reels), starring Gloria Swanson. Fred Niblo directed the film The Marriage Ring (five reels) in 1918. It has been offered that the films of DeMille are not only erotic comedies but reflect the becoming a commodity of matrimony and the reification of married life through the exchange values employed within suture and the syntax of shot reverse shot, the commodification of female sexuality within gendered spectatorship; within a model of the new woman a female subjectivity is constructed that is a result of consumerism. Whether or not the influence is direct, Einar Lauritzen has attributed the success of Mauritz Stiller's film Erotikon (When We Are Married, 1920), starring Lars Hanson, Tora Teje , Guken Cederborg and Karin Molander, to the films of DeMille. Added to that, in that there is a connection between the marriage dramas of De Mille and von Stroheim and the early film of Ernst Lubitsch, author Kenneth Macgowan having written that "in a wittier way" than the earlie two directors, Lubitsch had, "contributed to the delinquency of the screen", in particular with the silent film The Marriage Circle, in regard to the influence Mauritz Stiller may have had, Birgitta Steene writes, "They have often reminded foriegn critics of the comedies of Ernst Lubitsch, but actually the elegant eroticism characteristic of both Lubitsch and Bergman finds its source in the works of the Swedish motion picture director Mauritz Stiller." The film was photographed by Henrik Jaenzon. An emailed newsletter from Kino video during April of 2006 announced the release in the United States of Erotikon on DVD; the film is introduced by author Peter Cowie.
Mauritz Stiller is particularly noted for having directed Sjöström in two comedies for AB Svenska Biograteatern, Wanted A Film Actress,Thomas Graal's basta film, 1917), with Karin Molander, and Marriage ala mode (Thomas Graal's first child, Thomas Graal's basta barn, 1918). Rune Carlsten and Henrik Jaenzon both appeared on screen during Thomas Graal's Best Film. Molander continued as director and writer of Thomas Graal's Ward (Thomas Graal's mindling, 1922), photographed by Adrian Bjurman. Greta Garbo had seen the film Erotikon before her having met Stiller. Erotic comedy was later explored by the Finnish director Teuvo Tulio in his film You Want Me Like This (Sellaisena kuin sina minut balusit, 1944). (

Danish film director Lau Lauritzen directed five films in Sweden in 1920, En hustru till lans with Karen Winther, Flickorna i Are, with Kate Fabian, Karleck och bjornjakt with Si Holmquist, Vil de vare min kone-i morgen and Damernes ven. Although The President (Praesidenten, 1919), starring Elith Pio and Olga Raphael-Linden, is not distinguished as being remarkable, it is one of the only two that Carl Th Dreyer made in Denmark before his going abroad, his later establishing a small body of work that would be indelible upon filmmaking. His films are disparate stylisticly, differing in their use of technique; Dreyer has been quoted as having remarked upon his having tried to find a style.
The films of Clara Kimball Young were the springboard for scriptwriter Lenore Coffee, whose first films as a screenwriter, The Better Wife (William Earle, 1919,five reels) and The Forbidden Woman (1920) had starred the actress.
Finnish silent film director Erkki Karu directed two films for Suomen Biografi in 1920, both photographed by Finnish cinematographer Frans Ekebom, War Profiteer Kaikus Disrupted Summer Vacation (Sotagubishi Kaiun Hairitty Kesaloma) and Student Pollovaara's Betrothal (Ylioppilas Pollovaaran kihlaus).
One of the most beautiful silent films ever made by Mary Pickford, Pollyanna (Paul Powell, six reels) was filmed in 1920. The film also stars William Courtleigh. Pickford also that year made the film Suds (five reels) under the direction of John Francis Dillon. The film also stars William Austin. Mary Pickford was portrayed by Swedish actress Agneta Ekmanner in the 1974 teleplay Bakom masker, directed by Lars Amble and based on the play by Hjalmer Bergman. In a film that would almost seem a yardstick for many of the films that would comprise the rest of the silent film era, Douglas Fairbanks starred under the direction of Fred Niblo in the film The Mark of Zorro.
Covergirl for Photoplay Magazine, Norma Talmadge was also that year directed by Roy W. Neill in the film A Woman Gives (six reels). A Daughter of Two World (James Young, six reels) and She Loves and Lies were also to star Norma Talmadge that year.

     Norma Shearer appeared in films in the year 1920, among them being The Sign On the Door ( Herbert Brenon, seven reels), The Flapper (Alan Crosland, five reels), The Restless Sex (six reels) written by Frances Marion and The Stealers (seven reels, William Christy Cabanne).
     In 1920 Dorothy Gish not only starred in the film Little Miss Rebellion (five reels), directed by George Fawcett, but also had begun filming with the director F. Richard Jones, under whose direction she starred in Flying Pat (1920, five reels), with Kate Bruce, The Ghost in the Garret (1921) and The County Flapper (1922) with Glenn Hunter and Mildred Marsh. Lillian Gish writes about Garbo's later asking her to introduce her to Griffith, which she did, and of Garbo's asking her how she should dress. Garbo had said to her, "It would be nice to have dinner at your house."
During 1920 Sjöström also directed Master Samuel (A Dangerous Pledge,Masterman), in which he starred with Greta Almroth and Concordia Selander. Photographed by Julius Jaenzon, it was scripted by Hjalmar Bergman, as was the 1921 film Fru Mariannes friare, directed by Gunnar Klintberg and starring Astri Torsell, Inga Ellis and Aslaug Lie-Eide, the cinematographer to the film having been Robert Olsson. Gunnar Klintberg would continue by directing Astri Torsell in two other Swedish Silent films, The Love Child, with Julia Hakansson, and Lord Saviles brott.

     The Fishing Villiage
(Chains, Fiskebyn) was filmed in 1920 by Stiller and Henrik Jaenzon, it starring Lars Hanson. Appearing in the film was Hildur Carlburg, who that year also appearred in the film The Witch Woman (Prastankan), shot in Sweden by Danish film director Carl Dreyer. Sölve Cederstrand directed his first film, Ett odesdigert inkognito, starring Tage Alquist and Signe Selid.

A Fortune Hunter (En Lyckoriddarre, 1921 six reels) starring Gosta Ekman, Mary Johnson, Hilda Forsslund and Greta Garbo, her appearing with her sister Alva Gustafsson in a scene that takes place in a tavern. In 1922 he directed Iron Wills (Harda viljor).

Directed for Filmindustri Scandia, Stockholm in 1920, the first three films by Pauline Brunius, De lackra skaldjuren, Ombytta roller and Trollslanden, were also the first three films in which the actress Frida Winnerstrand was to appear.

Rune Carlsten in 1920 wrote and directed A Modern Robinson (Robinson i skargarden) with Mary Johnson. He that year also directed Mary Johnson, with Tora Teje, in the film Family Traditions (Familjens traditioner), which he scripted as well. The film was produced by Svensk Filmindustri
Danish silent film director A. W. Sandberg in 1920 wrote and directed two films for the Nordisk Films Kompagni in which the actress Clara Wieth starred, House of Fatal Love (Kaerlighedsvalen) and A Romance of Riches (Stodderprinsessen), in which she starred with Gunnar Tolnaes. Sandberg also that year directed the film Adrift (Det dode Skib), with Valedmar Psilander, Stella Lind and Else Frolich.
Ivan Hedqvist in 1921 directed the film Pilgrimage to Kevlar (Vallfarten till Kevlaar) starring Jessie Wessel, which he followed in 1924 with Life in the Country (Livet pa landet), photographed by Julius Jaenzon.  Let No Man Put Asunder (Hogre andamal, 1921) starred Edith Erastoff, her director having been Rune Carlsten. Klaus Albrecht that year directed Lili Ziedner in the film The Bimbini Circus (Cirkus Bimbini).  Tyra Ryman was introduced to her later costar Greta Garbo in 1922 at PUB by Eric Petschler, who directed both in Luffar-Peter. Writing about another film directed that year by Mauritz Stiller, Tom Milne sees the film Johan as having contributed to the technique and to the look of the film The Bride of Gromdal directed by Carl Th. Dreyer.
Carl Th. Dreyer in 1921 directed the silent film Leaves from Satan's Book (Blade af Satans Bog).
In the United States during 1921, Mary Pickford continued acting with the silent filmLittle Lord Fauntleroy.

In 1922, Victor Sjöström wrote and directed the films Love's Crucible (Vem domer), with Gosta Ekman and Jenny Hasselqvist and Ivan Hedqvist, The Hellship, from a screenplay written by Hjalmar Bergman and starring Matheson Long and Jenny Hasselqvist and Julia Cederblad in the first film in which she was to appear, both films having had been being filmed by Julius Jaenzon.

 The Swedish director Gustaf Edgren contributed The Young Lady of Bjorneborg (Froken pa Bjorneborg, 1922), photographed by Adrian Bjurman and starring Rosa Tilman, Elsa Wallin and the actress Edit Ernholm in her first film. Sigurd Wallen that year directed his first film Andessonskans Kalle with Stina Berg and Anna Diedrich, his following it with Andessonskans Kalle pa nya upptag with Edvin Adolphson, the debut film of Mona Martenson.  That year Ragnar Ring wrote and directed En Vikingafilm, with Harald Wehlnor and Sigrid Ahlstrom.
Karin Boye, the Swedish poet began publishing in 1922 with the volume Clouds. She continued in 1924 with Hidden Lands and in 1927 with The Hearths. Swedish poet Birger Sjoberg in 1922 published Frida's Songs.
Writing about the 1922 Finnish Silent Film, Tytta Soila notes, "Perhaps one might say that the fortune of Suomi-Filmi, and thus the future of Finnish cinema, was established by portraying the lives of two strong female characters: Anna-Liisa and Hannah. Subsequently, many Finnish films were to have a strong female character at the center of the action."
In 1922 Rudolf Valentino was in an early role, starring with Gloria Swanson in the film Beyond the Rocks (Sam Wood); the only existant copy of the film was found recently and the film, readying for distribution in United States during 2005, had its premiere in Amsterdam at the Filmuseum's Biennale festival. In her autobiography Swanson on Swanson, the actress gives an account of making of the film. "Everyone wanted Beyond the Rocks to be every luscious thing Hollywood could serve up in a single picture: the sultry glamour of Gloria Swanson, the steamy Latin magic of Rudolph Valentino, a rapturous love story byb Elinor Glyn, and the tango as it was meant to be danced, by the master himself. In the story I played a poor but aristocratic English girl who is married off to an elderly millionaire, only to meet the lover of her life on her honeymoon." After describing the fun she had off the set with Valentino, with whom she often had dinner, she concludes, "Several months later he married Natacha Rambova, and from then on he and I saw each other seldom." Valentino had in 1921 starred in the silent film Camille (Ray C. Smallwood, six reels) with Patsy Ruth Miller and Consuelo Flowerton.
It is only with sincere appreciation for for the Silent Film series aired on Turner Classic Movies on Sunday Nights that the best of luck should be wished to Robert Osborne and Charles Tabesh at their appearing at the screening of silent films- Robert Osborne was present at the San Francisco Silent Film Festival for the July 14, 2007 showing of Camille. The film was included in the Greta Garbo Signature released in 2005 near to the 100th birthday of the actress Greta Garbo along with a section entitled TCM archive: Greta Garbo Silents.
By then a producer for United Artists, D. W. Griffith followed in 1923 by directing Carol Dempster in the film The White Rose with Mae Marsh (twelve reels).

 Lon Chaney in 1922 starred in the film Flesh and Blood (five reels).

Norma Shearer first appeared in a starring role in 1922 in the film The Man Who Paid (five reels), directed by Oscar Apfel. Rudolf Valentino in 1922 would appear with Wanda Hawley in the film The Young Rajah (Phil Rosen), the screenplay to the film written by June Mathis, who adapted the script from a novel by ames Ames Mitchell. Valentino would also that year appear with Dorothy Dalton in Moran of the Lady Letty (George Melford).

Filmed in Sweden by Danish silent film director Benjamin Christensen, 1922 saw the release of the long awaited film Haxan (Witchcraft Through the Ages). The film, recently included in the films of Janus Films and in the silent film from Criterion, in the United States, was photographed by Johan Ankerstjerne and written by Christensen, who appears in the film with Ella la Cour, Emmy Schonfeld, Kate Fabian, Elisabeth Christensen, Astrid Holm and Elith Pio. Notably Alice O Fredricks and Tora Teje also appear in the film. In a film that to Sweden was to be its Intolerance, Christensen numerously uses the iris in to punctuate the end of a particular scene and the iris out in the subsequent shot to begin the adjacent scene; he goes so far as to use both during the same shot. Raymond Sptossiwoode remarked upon the fade in and fade out, along with the dissolve and wipe, as being something that was to "produce a softening effect, an indeterminate space between successive shots", his delegating it to being "the mark of the termination of an incident or of a defined period of time". German director Paul Wegener, two years earlier than Christensen's film, released a remake of his film The Golem (Der Golem), which he had first filmed in 1915.
Gunnar Hede's Saga (1922, seven reels), directed by Mauritz Stiller, and photographed Pby Julius Jaenzon, starring Pauline Brunius and Julia Cederblad, is based the novel En Herrgardsaggen by Selma Lagerlöf. Forsyth Hardy on Gunnar Hede's Saga writes, "Again there was a distinctive combination of a powerfully dramatic story and a magnificient setting in the northern landscape. It was the first film in which actress Lotten Olsson was to appear.
The King of Boda (Tyranny of Hate, Bodakungen, 1920) was the first film to bear the name of Gustaf Molander as director. It was also the first film to be photographed by cinematographer Adrian Bjurman. The film stars Egil Eide and Wanda Rothgardt. Continuing the filming of the novels of Lagerlöf, he directed Birgit Sergelius and Pauline Brunius in Charlotte Lowenskold (1930). Charlotte Lowenskold is the second in a trilogy of short stories written by Selma Lagerlöf, each of them having the Scandinavian landscape of Varmland as their background. The beginning volume, Lowenskolska Ringen was published in 1925, the third volume, Anna Svard having appeared in 1928. Victor Sjostrom had starred with Wanda Rothgart and Gunn Wallgren in the first filming of The Word (Ordet, 1943) under the direction of Molander, the actor Rune Lindstrom having written the screenplay. Victor Sjostrom also acted under Molander's direction in the films The Fight Goes On (Striden gar Vidare, 1941),in which Sjostrom appeared with Renee Bjorling and Ann-Margret Bjorlin, it having had been being the debut of the actress in film, Det Brinner en Eld (1943), in which Sjöström appeared with Lars Hanson and Inga Tiblad and Kvartetten som Sprangdes (1950). If as though to either to complement or to counter the use of mise en scene and Victor Sjöström's use of landscape in early Swedish cinema, Molander is a director of the interior scene. Tytti Soila writes, "Particularly in the melodramas, Molander used the composition of the image with the purpose of showing something essential about the existential situation of the characters. The pictures are 'tight' and on the verge of being claustrophobic, as props and other details of the set fill the frame, competing for room with the characters."
Gustaf Edgren in 1923 wrote and directed the film People of Narke (Narkingarna) photographed by Adrian Bjurman and starring Anna Carlsten, Gerda Bjorne and Maja Jerlström in her first appearence on screen, the director following it in 1924 with The King of Trollebo (Trollebokungen), an adaptation of the 1917 novel scripted by Sölve Cederstrand and photographed by C.A. Söström, the film having starred Ivar Kalling, Weyeler Hildebrand and Signe Ekloff.
Per Lindberg directed his first film in 1923, Norrtullsligan written by Hjalmar Bergman and starring Tora Teje, Egil Eide, Stina Berg, Linnea Hillberg and Nils Asther, as did William Larsson, who directed Jenny Tschernichin, Jessie Wessel and Frida Sporrong in the film Halsingar and Karin Swanström, who directed and starred with Karin Gardtman and Ann Mari Kjellgren in the film Boman at the Exhibition (Boman pa utstallningen) for Scandias Filmbyra and Svensk Filmindustri. Halsingar was also to be the first of many films photgraphed by Swedish cinematographer Henning Ohlson. Per Lindgren that year directed a second film scripted by Hjalmar Bergman, Anna Klara and her Brothers (Anna Clara och hennes broder), it starring Anna-Britt Ohlsson, Hilda Borgström, Karin Swanström, Linnea Hillberg, Hilda Borgström and Margit Manstad in what would be her first appearance on the siler screen. The film was photographed by Ragnar Westfelt. Bror Abelli in 1923 directed his first two films, including the film Janne Modig.
Ragnar Widestedt in 1923 directed Agda Helin and Jenny Tschernichin-Larsson in the film Housemaids (Hemslavinnor), written by Ragnar-Hylten-Cavallius. Froken Fob (1923) was directed by Elis Ellis and photographed by Adrian Bjurman. Sven Bardach photographed his first film in 1923, Andersson, Petterson och Lundstrom, under the direction of Carl Barklind. The film stars Vera Schmiterlow and Mimi Pollock, both of whom were aquaintances of Greta Garbo, Inga Tiblad, Gucken Cederborg and Edvin Adolphson. Fredrik Anderson in 1923 directed En rackarunge, with Elsa Wallin and Mia Grunder. Gustaf V, King of Sweden is listed as being in the film. The film was photographed by Swedish cinematographer Sven Bardach.
Danish silent film directors Benjamin Christensen and Carl Th. Dreyer, who both had begun as scriptwriters for Nordisk in 1912, would by 1923 have travelled to Germany, as Urban Gad, Asta Nielsen and Stellan Rye had earlier. Christensen would star in Dreyer's 1924 film Mikail (Chained) in addition to directing the film Seine Frau, die Unbekannte (1924) while there.
Danish actress Olga d'Org starred in three films for Nordisk Films Kompagni, all of which were directed by A.W. Sandberg, including the 1923 film The Hill Park Mystery (Nedbrudte nerver).
Finnish film director Karl Fager in 1923 brought the film The Old Baron of Rautakyla (Rautakylan Vanha Parooni) to the screen.
John Lindlof in 1924 directed Man of Adventure (Odets man) with Inga Tiblad and Uno Henning and photographed by Gustav A Gustafson. Sigurd Wallen that year directed Inga Tiblad with Einar Froberg in Grevarna pa Svanta, photographed by Henrik Jaenzon. Theodor Berthels in 1924, wrote and directed the film People of the Simlanga Valley (Folket i Simlangsdalen) with Mathias Taube and Greta Almroth and directed the film The Girl from Paradise (Flickan fran Paradiset). Both films were photographed by Swedish cinematographer Adrian Bjurman. Ragnar Ring that year directed Bjorn Mork and Nar millionera rulla. Ivar Kage in 1924 directed Gosta Hillberg and Edvin Adolphson in the film Where the Lighthouse Flashed (Dar fryen blinkar) for Svensk Ornfilm. Rune Carlsten in 1924 wrote and directed The Young Nobleman (Unga greven tar flickan och priset). Hellwig Rimmen that year directed and photgraphed the film Hogsta vinsten. Silent Film Greta Garbo

Swedish Film

Swedish Film

An e-mailed letter to the present author ends, "Many people in Sweden says that Greta Garbo is a main collector's item but the Garbo posters didn't fetch much interest." It was sent by a collector of movie posters who had been to the movie poster auction in Gothenburg, Sweden, which was held as part of the Gothenburg Film Festival, February, 2006. Included in the auction were two posters from the film A Two Faced Woman.

As there was speculation as to what script could possibly bring Greta Garbo back to the silver screen, as Eva Henning and Viveca Lindfors were being introduced to Swedish audiences and as Ingmar Bergman was laying the beginnings of a body of film that would secure him as the director that would circulate the films of the Swedish Film Institute into an international viewing, Ingrid Bergman was in the United States making the 1946 film Notorius with Alfred Hitchcock, her earlier having appearred in the film Dr. Jeckyll and Mr. Hyde (1941). It was also at this time that there would be a remake of Anna Karenina, starring Vivien Leigh and directed by Julien Duuvier.

From a script co-written by Birgit Tengroth based on her short stories, Three Strange Loves ( Thirst, Torst 1949), directed for Svensk Filmindustri by Ingmar Bergman and photographed by Gunnar Fischer, had starred Mimi Nelson, Eva Henning and Hasse Ekman. Birgit Tengroth also appears in the film. Hugo Bolander filmed as an assistant director with Ingmar Bergman and Oscar Rosander edited the film. Bergman writes that the film is in fact about a journey and that his aim was that the "complicated camera movements" be unnoticed by the audience; "you can see the seems if you look closely" (Ingmar Bergman). Bergman, during an interview with Swedish author Jonas Sima, had remarked, "I like Eva very much. She was an extraordinarily fine actress." Before Eva Henning appeared in The Banquet (Banketten, 1948), she had also appeared in Elvira Madigan (1943) and The Royal Rabble ( Kungliga patrasket, 1945) which also starred its director, Hasse Ekman. Ekman directed her with Alf Kjellin in 1945 in the film Wish on the Moon (Vandring med mannen). In 1947 she appeared with Sonja Wigert in his film One Swallow Doesn't Make A Summer (En fluga gor ingen sommar). Hasse Ekman had begun directing with With You In My Arms (Med dej i mina armar, 1940), the first film in which Elsie Allbin was to appear, it being followed by First Division (Forsta Divisionen, 1941) in which he and Lars Hanson starred. In 1942 he directed Ingrid Tiblad in Langor i dunklet and Marguerite Viby in Luck Arrives (Lyckan kommar). While comparing Swedish actresses of the thirties, Tytti Soila writes that Royal Dramatic Theater (Kungliga Dramatiska Teatern) "actors were easy to identify thanks to their inflated and stylized acting and above all-after the introduction of sound film- by their unnatural manner of delivering lines. Actors like Lars Hanson and Inga Tiblad never succeded in liberating themselves from this formal style of acting" Apparently this was not entirely to the dismay of Swedish audiences, as their films were still popular in Sweden.

In 1943 Hasse Ekman continued with the films Unexpected Meeting, Change of Trains (Om byte ar tage), with Sonja Wigert and The Sixth Shot (Sjatte Skottet), written by Gösta Stevens and starring Edvin Adolphson, Karin Ekelund and Gunn Wallgren. In 1944 he directed Lars Hanson again in His Excellency (Excellensen), with Gunnar Sjoberg and Erik Hampe Faustman as well as having directed A Day Will Dawn (En Dag Skall gry) with Edvin Adolphson for Sandrews Productions.

Swedish Film In 1946 the director filmed Nightly Encounter (Meeting in the Night/Mote i nattan) starring Eva Dahlbeck and When The Door Was Closed (When The Door Was Locked, Medan portan var stangd), all of which were films in which he had starred. Writing about the premiere of A Ship Bound for India (Skepp till Indialand, 1947), a film which had been based on a play by Martin Soderhjelm that had starred Gertrude Fridh, Ingmar Bergman describes a meeting with Hasse Ekman with "an unbelievably gorgeous Eva Henning at his side." The film was produced by Terrafilm.

Girl with Hyacinths (Flicka och hycintar, 1950) had again brought Eva Henning to the screen, it starring Anders Ek and directed by Ekman. The film is listed as being one of the favorites screenings of director Ingmar Bergman. Bordwell and Thompson, in a Bloglines RSS entitled Observations on film art and Film Art, blog that there are ten retrospective narrative scene-sequences in Girl with Hyacinths, but more notably rePlate that these retrospective narratives interlock. During the previous year Eva Henning had appeared with Hasse Ekman in his film The Girl From the Gallery/The Girl in the Third Row (Flickan fran tredje raden), which had also starred Maj-Britt Nilsson. Ekman directed the film for Terra Film.

She then made The White Cat (1951) (Den vita katten) with Gunnar Bjornstrand and Alf Kjellin and Gabrielle (1954), photographed by Gunnar Fischer and also starring Karin Molander, both of which films were also directed by Ekman. In 1948, Ekman directed Each Goes His Own way (Var sin vag) with Eva Dahlbeck and Gosta Cederlund and Little Marta Returns (Lilla Marta kommer till baka), produced by Terrafilm.

Swedish FilmViveca Lindfors began acting on the screen with the director Ivar Johanson in the films The Spinning Family (Snurriga Familjens, 1940), scripted by Torsten Lundquist and starring Annalisa Ericson, Imagine If I Marry the Vicar (Tank, Om Jag Gifter Mig Med Prasten), a Swedish Karleksdrama based on a novel by Ester Linden and starring Gudron Brost, Arne Mattsson the assistant director to the Swedish Karleksdrama, (1941) and The Yellow Ward / The Yellow Clinic (Gula Kliniken, 1942), with Anna Lindahl, Barbro Kollberg, Karin Kavli, Gull Natorp, Ruth Stevens and Mona Martenson. She then appeared with Birgitta Valberg in In Paradise (I Paradis, 1941) directed by Per Lindgren and with Gudron Brost in The Sins of Anna Lans (Anna Lans, 1943) a Swedish Karleksdrama directed by Rune Carlsten and photographed by Ernst Westerberg, it having been the first film in which actress Toivo Pawlo was to appear. Black Roses (Svarta Rosor, 1945), directed by Rune Carlsten, a remake of the earlier film, would star Viveca Lindfors with Eva Dahlbeck and Ulf Palme. Gösta Cederlund directed Lindfors in The Brothers' Woman (Brodernas kvinna, 1943), based on a novel by Ebba Richert and starring Britta Holmgren. The film was produced by Film AB Lux.

Eric Petschler, who had directed Greta Garbo in Sweden before she had travelled to the United States, appeared as an actor with Lindfors in the film Jag ar eld och luft (1944) directed by Anders Henrikson, the assistant director to the film Gösta Folke.

One of the first films that Arne Mattsson was to direct, Marie in the Windmill (Maria pa Kvarngarden, 1945) had starred Viveca Lindfors, it also featuring the daughter of Victor Sjöström, Guje Lagerwall, as well as Edvin Adolphson, Irma Christensen, Linnea Hillberg and Rune Carlsten. In 1946, Lindfors starred with the director Hasse Ekman in his film (In the Waiting Room of Death(Interlude/I dodens vantrum) which had been based on a novel by Sven Stolpes, the assistant director to the film Bengt Ekerot. Like Greta Garbo she later came to the United States to make film. Among those in which Lindfors had appearred were The Adventures of Don Juan (1948) and The Raiders (1952). Swedish Film actress Mai Zetterling would decide upon England. Before later returning to Sweden, she appearred in several British films, the first of which, Frieda (1947), her performance having had been being under the direction of Basil Dearden. In 1948, Mai Zetterling was to appear in Terence Fischer's Potrait from Life, her then having appeared in the films The Bad Lord Byron (Macdonald), The Lost People (Knowles) and The Romantic Age (Greville).

Having read the script to the adaptation and having agreed to make the film,in 1949 Garbo made a thirteen minute screentest in black and white for La Duchesse de Langeais shot by William Daniels and James Wong Howe.

"I thanked him by leaving for Svensk Filmindustri, where Gustaf Molander had meaninwhile made a film out my original screenplay, Woman without a Face." Filmed under Victor Sjöström, the cinematographer to Kvinna utan ansikte (1947), scripted by Ingmar Bergman, was Ake Dahlqvist. The film stars Alf Kjellin, Gunn Wallgren, Anita Björk and Marianne Lofgren.

Photographed by Goran Strindberg and directed by Alf Sjöberg, Miss Julie (Froken Julie, 1950) begin with a series of exterior shots, often cutting in close up shots with long and full shots, almost as though to supplant the establishing shot with the use of an entire scene before it introducing two initially minor characters in a kitchen by showing the title character, potrayed by Anita Björk, evesdropping on them. He uses a horse drawn carriage to connect the interior dialouge of the one-act play to the open countryside, using long shots from different camera positions. As the film continues, Sjöberg uses statues and a lake during exterior shots of a garden to connect the characters to the landscape , which can nearly seem pastoral as the film begins to depend more and more upon the dramatic acting of Björk. The film then shifts to a legnthy interior dialouge scene as the two characters decide whether to leave the country and begin again together. The film concludes by Miss Julie being last seen in an exterior reestablishing shot. While writing about The Road to Heaven (Himlaspelet), Cowie attributes Söberg as being a director that "could reconcile the alfresco scope of the cinema" with the compressed acting and dialouge that comprises the playwright's articulation of the visual on the stage. Sjöberg had in fact returned to the theater after having directed Anders Henrikson The Strongest (Den Starkaste, 1929). Author Peter Cowie goes so far as to write, "But during the thirties Sjöberg was ostracized by the film industry. So keen was the appetite for frivolous domestic comedies that a director of Sjöberg's intent incongruous at the studious." Examining Sjöberg's adaptation of the Strindberg play, Tytti Soila views the subject positioning of the Anita Björk character as the use of the theatrical within film to structure the look of the character, "The object of her desire is her possibility of knowing and the consequences of knowledge: more than sexual satisfaction and love, the drama is about acquiring sexual experience and knowledge about sex." Ostensibly, the feminine gaze as a desire to acquire knowledge about sexual relations is also thematic in Vilgot Sjöman two films I am Curious Yellow and I am Curious Blue. The film Home from Babylon (Hem fran Babylon, 1941), starring Gerd Hagman, marks the beginning of Alf Sjoberg's return from the theater to to film . Alf Sjöberg directed Maj-Britt Nilsson in her first film, Journey Out (Resanbort, 1945), photographed by Martin Bodin and starring Gunn Wallgern and Hjordis Petterson. In 1946 Sjöberg paired Mai Zetterling and Alf Kjellin in Iris and the Lieutenant (Iris och lojnantshjarta). Froken Julie was produced by noted author and film historian Rune Walderkranz for A B Sandrew.

After filming Sonja Wigert in And All These Women (...och alla dessa kvinnor, 1944) Arne Mattsson continued directing in 1945 with the comedy Sussie, written by Sölve Cederstrand and starring Gunnar Bjönstrand and Marguerite Viby and the films Incorrigible (1946) and Bad Eggs (Rottagg, 1946), scripted by Sven Zetterström and photographed by Sten Dahlgren and starring Marianne Lofgren, Ingrid Backlin, Harriet Philpson and Elsie Allbin. In 1946 Arne Mattsson also directed Gunnar Bjornstrand in the film Peggy pa Vift, starring Gunnel Brostrom and Marguerite Viby, and, in 1947, followed with the film Father Wanted (Pappa sokes), starring Gunnar Bjönstrand and Sickan Carlsson.

1946 was to mark the film Det eviga leendet being on the theater marquees in Sweden, it being the film that would introduce Eva Lombard. The film was written and directed by Lars Eric Leidholm and starred Barbro Hogstadius. Eva Dahlbeck that year appearred in Rolf Husberg's film Love Goes Up and Down/Love and Downhill Skiing (Karlek och stortlopp), starring Agneta Lagerfelt, Signe Furst, Hjordis Petterson and Karin Miller in her first on screen appearance. Agneta Lagerfelt would also that year appear in Rolf Husberg's film Evening at Djurgarden (Djurgardsikvallar), phototographed by Julius Jaenzon and starring Ingrid Bjork, Naima Wifstrand and Emy Hagman as well as the film Kvinnor i vantrum, directed by Gösta Folke, written by Solve Cederstand and photographed by Eric Blomberg. The film stars Britta Holmberg, Anna Lindahl and Solveig Lagström. Eic Blomberg that year was also the cinematographer for the film Wedding at Sun Island (Brollopet Pa Solo), directed by Ivar Johansson and starring Rut Holm, Emy Hagman and Sibrit Molin in what was to be her first appearance on the screen. Nils Poppe in 1946 would direct The Balloon (Ballongen), with Marianne Aminoff, Inga Landgre, Marianne Lögren, Ingrid Borthen and Marianne Gyllenhammar. Schamyl Bauman that year directed the film Saltwater Spray and Tough Old Boys (Saltstank och Krutgubbar) photographed by Sven Nykvist and starring Irma Christensen, Gull Natorp and Inrid Ostergren.

Finnish film director Teuvo Tulio directed actress Regina Linnanheimo in two films during 1946, The Cross of Love (Rakkauden risti/Karleckens kors) and Restless Blood (Levoton veri/Orolist blod). He followed in 1947 by directing her in the film In the Grips of Passion (Intohimon vallasa/I ledelsens famn). Finnish actress Helena Karan that year appeared in the film Ruined Youth (Tuhotto nuoruus), directed by Hanu Leminen.

Ake Ohberg in 1948 directed Where the Wind Blows (Dit Vindarna Bar), the first film in which Ingrid Thulin was to appear. In the film are also George Fant and Eva Strom. Elof Ahrle that year directed Livet pa Forsbyholm, photographed by Julius Jaenzon. That year Gosta Werner directed Maj-Britt Nilsson in The Street (Gatans). Arne Mattsson that year directed the film Dangerous Spring (Farlig var). Erik Hampe Faustman in 1948 directed Eva Dahlbeck in the film Lars Hard and George Fant with Illona Weiselmann in the film Foreign Port (Fremmande hamn/Strange Harbor). Anders Henrikson in 1948 directed Eva Dahlbeck in the film The Girl From the Mountain Village (Flickan fran fjallbyn).

Swedish FilmPhotographed by Gunnar Fischer and edited by Oscar Rosander, Port of Call (Hamnstad, 1948) starred Nine Christine Jonsson as the central character in a script written by Olle Lansberg titled The Gold and the Walls, the film "shot on location in Gotheburg, with interiors at the SF studios in Stockholm" (Peter Cowie) where the camerawork of Bergman begins showing not only the enviornment in which the characters find the situations that emerge around them, but also what may isolate the character while involved with the development of plotline events as he or she develops as character. Also in the film are Bergit Hall, Mimi Nelson, Birgitta Valberg and Britta Billsten. Jorn Donner remarks upon Port of Call as being noteworthy for its "unsentimental tone" in regard to the narrative and its exposition of storyline, and for there being a uniformity to the style in regard to the technique used in the film. In Images, Ingmar Bergman writes that he tried to include as many exteriors as he could in order to create something new with Swedish cinema that would include the use of realism. Jorn Donner in fact attributes the film with having brought a realism to its character portrayal and goes so far as to invoke the camerawork of Stiller and Sjostrom in that Bergman uses the enviornment to bring the development of its characters to the depth that ends the film.

In 1949 Arne Mattsson directed Victor Sjöström in The Railroad Men (Rallare), based on a novel by Olle Lansberg. It was photographed by Martin Bodin who had worked with Arne Mattsson on the film A Guest Came (Det kom en gast, 1947) with Sture Lagerwall and Anita Björk. Mattsson again directed Sjöström in Hard klang (1952) with Margit Carlqvist and Edvin Adolphson and Men in Darkness (Mannen i Morker, 1955). In 1949 he also directed Woman in White (Kvinna i vitt) with Mimi Nelson and Eva Dahlbeck.

In her autobiography, All Those Tommorows, Mai Zetterling writes, "Music in the Dark was to be my first and last picture with Ingmar Bergman directing. It was in 1947...Music in the Dark was basically a sentimental love story about a man who goes blind through an accident and a young girl who falls in love with him. What Ingmar was interested in was the man's loss of identity, his lonliness and his despair." She continues candidly and with all kindness to describe her relationship with Bergman as an actress at that time as not having brought enough to her performance and that she looked to Alf Sjöberg for inspiration. Musik i Morker (Night is My Future) was photographed by Göran Strindberg and stars Hilda Borgström, Gunnar Björnstrand and Birger Malmsten. Jorn Donner writes, "Compared with Port of Call, Night is My Future seems to be an almost completely commercial film. In his autobiography Images, Bergman writes that he had in fact directed the film with the thought of it being enjoyable to watch

Theaters in 1947 were to see the script writing of Rune Walderkranz, cowriting with Ragnar Arvedson on a film that Arvedson co-directed with Schamyl Bauman, Maj pa Malo, photographed by Sven Nykvist and starring Inga Landre. Rune Waldekranz that year produced the film Life in the Finn Woods (Livet i Flunskogarna), directed by Ivar Johansson and phtographed by Eric Blomberg. Starring are Sigbrit Molin, Barbro Ribbing, Mirjami Kuosmanen and Nine-Christine Jonsson. It was also the year that Song of Stockholm (Sangen om Stockholm) , would be shown on the theater screens of Sweden. Directed by Elof Ahrle, the film stars Hilda Borström, Alice Babs, Karin Swenson and Marianne Gyllenhammar. Audiences would also be reintroduced to actress Eva Dahlbeck, who appeared in the film The Key and the Ring (Nyckeln och Ringen), under the direction of Anders Henrikson. The film was photographed by Harald Berglund and scripted by Swedish silent film screenwriter Bertil Malberg. Also starring in the film were Aino Taube, Ulla Sallert, Hild Bögström and Maj Töblad. Henrikson would again direct Eva Dahlbeck in 1948 in the film The Girl from the Mountain Village (Flickan fran fjallbyn), photographed by Bertil Palmgren and written by Sven Gustafson. The film also stars Kerstin Holmber and Sif Ruud. Inger Juel would appear in her first film in 1947, The Most Beautiful in the World (Det Vackraste Pa Jorden), also directed by Anders Henrikson and starring Marianne Lofgren. Gosta Bernhard directed his first two films in 1947, 91:an Karlssons permis and En sommarweekend. Sture Lagerwall went from actor to director with the film Here We Are Coming (Har kommer vi) in 1947, scripted by Torsten Lundquist, Greta Garbo biographer Fritiof Billquist and Marianne Aminoff having appeared in the film. The film was co-directed with actor John Zacharias, as was the film I Love You, Karlsson (Jag Elskar Dig, Karlsson) in which he starred with Marguerite Viby, Viveca Serlachius, Solveig Lagstrom and Linnea Hillberg. The cinematographer to the film was Rudolf Frederiksen. Lagerwall appeared as an actor in Gunnar Skoglund's film How to Love (Konsten att alska, 1947) with Wanda Rothgardt and in Bengt Palm's film The Night Watchman's Wife (Nattvaktens hustru, 1948) with Britta Holmberg, a film which was produced by AB Centrumfilm. Gosta Folke that year directed Maj-Britt Nilsson in the film Maria. Stig Jarrel in 1947 directed and appeared in the films Evil Eyes and The Sixth Commandment (Sjatte Budet), which also starred Ingrid Backlin and Gosta Cederlund. Lars-Eric Kjellin directed his first film that year, Don't Give Up (Tappan inte sugen), starring Ulla Sallert and Annalisa Erickson and photographed by Gunnar Fischer. Eva Dahlbeck that year appeared in the film Two Women (Tva kvinnor), directed by Arnold Sjöstrand. Eric Hampe Faustman in 1947 directed the Viking-medieval adventure film Harald the Stalwart (Harald Handfaste), with George Ryderberg and George Fant. Anita Björk that year appeared in the film No Way Back (Ingen vag till backa), written and directed by Edvin Adolphson. Ragnar Arvedson that year directed Edvin Adolphson and Karin Ekelund in the film Dinner for Two (Supe for tva), with Mimi Pollack, it having been the first film in which actress Ann-Mari Wiman was to appear. Swedish actress Monica Nielsen appeared in her first film in 1947, Kvarterets Olycksfagel directed by P. G. Holmgren with Ella Lindblom and Lillemor Appelgren.

Swedish Film-EvaThe following year, Gustaf Molander continued directing with the film Life Starts Now (Nuborjar livet, 1948), photographed by Ake Dahlqvist, edited by Oscar Rosnader and written by Rune Lindstrom and starring Wanda Rothgardt and Mai Zetterling. The Trumpet Player and the Lord (Trumpetar och Var Henne), a film written by Ingmar Bergman was became an opportunity for he and Gustaf Molander to script the film Eva (1948), directed by Molander and photographed by Ake Dahlqvist, with Eva Stiberg in the title role supported by Swedish actresses Hilda Borgström Wanda Rothgardt and Inga Landgre. Erland Josephson and Stig Olin play to Birger Malmsten in the film. In 1949 Molander directed Love Will Conquer (Karleken Segrar), scripted by Gösta Stevens, with Ingrid Thulin. Egil Molmsen in 1948 would direct Ingrid Thulin and Gerda Landgren in the film Kann dej som hemma. The very beautiful Else Fisher was introduced to Swedish movie goers in 1948 in the film Stanna en stund, directed by Alex. Jute and photographed by Sten Dahlgren. In 1952, she appeared with Yvonne Lombard in the film Bom the Flyer (Flyg-Bom).

Gunnar Hogland directed the film Vi bygger framtiden with Ingrid Thulin in 1949. Both Eva Dahlbeck and Max von Sydow that year appeared in the film Only a Mother (Bara en mor), adapted from a novel by Lo-Johansson, photographed by Martin Bodin and directed by Alf Sjöberg. The film was the first film in which actresses Sonja Rolen and Margaretha Krook were to appear. Mimi Pollack also appears in the film. Bara en mor is listed by the Ingmar Bergman Foundation as being among one of the most liked by the director. The Woman Who Disappeared (Kvinnan som f'rsvann), directed by Anders Angström and photographed by Bertil Palmgren in 1949, starred Inger Juel and Cecile Ossbahr. Arthur Spjuth that year wrote and directed his first film in 1949, Bohus Bataljon, codirected by Sölve Cederstrand, it starring Greta Garbo biographer Fritiof Billquist. After having directed his royal majesty Gustaf V. Kung av Sverige in the film Directorn ar upptagen (1945), Per Gunvall directed the film Pippi Longstocking (Pippi Langstrump, 1949) with Viveca Serlachius and Benkt-Ake Benktsson. Lars-Eric Kjellin in 1949 directed the films The Lord from the Lane (Greven fran granden) with Mimi Nelson and Annalisa Ericson and Father Bom (Pappa Bom). In a film scripted by Rune Lindström, Ake Ohberg that year brought Sonja Wigert, Inger Juel and Margareta Fahlen to the screen in Destination Rio (Vi flyger pa Rio). Schamyl Bauman in 1949 brought Harriet Andersson to the screen in the film Playing Truant (Skolka Skolan). Maj-Britt Nilsson in 1949 appeared in the film Spring at Sjosala (Sjosalavar), produced by Rune Waldekranz and directed by Per Gunvall. Ivar Johansson in 1949 wrote and directed the film Lasky-Lasse goes to Delbo (Lang-Lasse i Delsbo), photographed by Sven Nykvist and starring Anna Lindal and Ulla Andreasson. The Swedish Horseman (Svenske Ryttaren) was directed by Gustaf Edgren in 1949 and starred Elisabeth Söström, Gunnel Brostrom, Gull Natorp and Barbro Nordin.

Ingrid Thulin-Swedish FilmIn 1950, Ivar Johansson directed When Lilacs Bloom (Nar Syrenerna blomma), photographed by Sven Nykvist and Land of Rye (Ragen Rike), photographed by Sven Nykvist and starring Nine-Christine Jonsson and Linnea Hillberg. Hasse Ekman that year directed Ingrid Thulin, Irma Christenson, Gertrud Fridh and Eva Dahlbeck in the film Jack of Hearts (Hjarter knekt), the first film in which Barbro Larsson would appear. The Newer, a novel by Albert Olsson published in 1947, was quickly adapted for Arne Mattsson, who directed Ingrid Thulin , Ruth Kasdan, Sigge Furst and Irma Christenson in the film When Love Arrived in the Village (Nar karleken till byn, 1950). Mattsson also that year directed Cruise Romance (Kyssen pa kryssen), starring Annalisa Ericson, Gunnar Bjornstrand and Ake Gronberg as well as Saucepans-journey (Kastrull-resan), starring Eva Dahlbeck and Sigge Furst. Scripted by Gösta Stevens and photographed by Ake Dahlquist, Gustaf Molander directed Eva Dahlbeck, along with Elsa Carlsson, Olaf Winnerstrand, Viveca Serlachius and Karl-Arne Homsten in the film Fastmo uthyres, 1950, the first film in which actress Birgitta Olzon was to appear. Ake Ohberg that year directed Ulla Sallert and Mimi Nelson in the film Young and in Love (Ung och kar). Kungs Film in 1950 produced Gosta Werner's film Across the Yard and Two Flights Up (Tva trappor over garden), photographed by Sten Dahlgren and starring Gertrud Fridh, Irma Christensen, Ilse-Nore Tromm, Sif Ruud, Lisskulla Jobs, Ann Bornholm, Ingrid Lothigius, and Else Fischer. Schamyl Bauman in 1950 paired Edvin Adolphson and Sickan Carlsson in Frokens forsta barn, a film that would include an early screen appearance of Swedish film actress Harriet Andersson. Froken forsta barn was photographed by Hilding Bladh. During 1950, both Birger Malmsten and Haide Göransson appeared on the same movie set together with the film Regementets ros, directed by Begnt Jarrel and photographed by Olof Ekman. Also in the film are Margareta Fahlen and Siv Thulin. Swedish film actress and acquaintance of Greta Garbo Mimi Pollack directed her first film, Mama gor Revolution, photographed by Elner Akesson and scripted by Elsa Appelquist, in 1950.

Peter Cowie looks to the film Summer Interlude (Sommarlek, 1950), starring Maj-Britt Nilsson, Alf Kjellin and Annalisa Ericsson, as being the film where Ingmar Bergman began to develop unique uses of film technique and a more extensive use of the close-up to dramaticly develop character. In his autobiography Images, Ingmar Bergman writes, "A touch of tenderness is achieved through Maj-Britt Nillsson's performance. The camera catches her with an affection that is easy to comprehend." In his autobiography Images, Bergman gives an account of his writing the script, "I wrote several versions, but nothing fell into place. Then Herbert Grevenius came to me aid. He chiseled away all the superfluous episodes and pulled out an original story." To continue the tradition established by Sjöström and Stiller of using the enviornment to convey theme in Swedish film, a tradition that would show Bergman's technique in Cries and Whispers as being that of a director that had filmed after Gustav Molander, Bergman discusses the lighting used in the film and his filming at twilight, "The landscape had a special mixture of a tempered countryside and wilderness, which played and important part in the different time schemes." Immediately after filming Summer Interlude, Ingmar Bergman went into the production of the film This Can't Happen Here (Sant Hander Inte Har). He writes, "I was not at all adverse to making a detective story or a thiller; that was not the reason for my discomfort. Neither was Signe Hasso the reason. She had been hailed as an international star who Svensk Filmindustri, with incredible naivete, had hoped would make the film a raging success." Again Herbert Grevenius was to be the scriptwriter with Bergman, his adapting for the screen a novel written by Peter Valentin. The cinematographer to the film was Gunnar Fischer, its editor Lennart Wallen. Alf Kjellin also appears on screen in the film as does actress Yngve Nordwall.

In 1951 Arne Mattson directed the film Rolling Sea/Carrying Sea (Barande Hav) with Eva Dahlbeck and Ulla Jacobsson. Eva Dahlbeck that year also appeared in the film Daisywheel Helena (Skona Helena), cowritten by Rune Walderkranz with its director, Gustaf Edgren and photographed by Hilding Bladh. That year Gosta Bernhard directed Kenne Fant in the film Poker, which also starred Ingrid Backlin and Margetha Löwler.

Swedish poet Folke Isaksson in 1951 published the volume Vinterresa, his following it in 1954 with the volume Det grona aret. 1953 saw the publication of Isaksson's novel Irrarder.

In 1952 Gösta Werner directed Ingrid Thulin in the film Mote med livet. The Long Search (Memory of Love, Han glomde henne aldrig, 1952), a film that had featured the daughter of Victor Sjöström, Guje Lagerwall, and Anita Björk, had also starred Sven Lindberg, who co-directed the film with Robert B. Spafford. Lars Eric Kjellgren was again to be the director of Mimi Nelson, his teaming her with Annalisa Ericson that year for the 1952 film Say it with Flowers (Sag det med blommar), scripted by Gösta Stevens.

Noregian film director Arne Skouen in 1952 wrote and directed the film Forced Landing (Nordlanding), photographed byPer G. Jonson and starring Randi Kolstad.

Secrets of Women (Waiting Women, Kvinnors vantan, 1952) is of an episodic narrative structure, it being a film where "its narrative method gives us more variety than depth" (Birgitta Steene); each of the female characters narrates a retrospective account from their marriage, Bergman dividing the film not only between scenes but between characters as well. In the film are Anita Bjõrk, Maj-Britt Nilsson and Eva Dahlbeck. Anita Björk and Jarl Kulle are filmed in close-up, Maj-Britt Nilsson and Birger Malmsten are shown on location in exterior shots and Eva Dahlbeck and Gunnar Björnstrand are filmed by Gunnar Fischer in an elevator sequence during a dialouge scene involving mirrors which are "used to suggest the inanity of the repartee" (Peter Cowie) as the conversation is drawn out by the couple being filmed in a continuous take. Ingmar Bergman had based the scene on one of his own experiences. He writes, "There was something fateful about the meeting between the three of us: me, Eva and Gunnar. Both of them were talented and creative actors. They felt immediately that although I had perhaps not yet written a spectacular text, the collaboration offered them great oppourtunities.

Swedish Film-Eva Dahlbeck

Bergman writes that it was because he was so pleased with the acting performances of Eva Dahlbeck and Gunnar Bjönstrand in Secrets of Women that he wrote A Lesson in Love (En lektion i karlek, 1953) for them in order to develop the theme of the elevator sequence more elaborately. Birgitta Steene also compares the two films thematicly, their both being concerned with the acceptance on the part of the female character of a husband within an erotic relationship. As in Secrets of Women, Bergman uses retrospective narrative to present the characters and storyline. Photographed by Martin Bodin, A Lesson in Love quickly introduces itself as a comedy with a voice over and a musical box. Gunnar Bjornstrand and Eva Dahlbeck meet each other on a train after a series of dialougue scenes that cutback and forth establishing the films interwoven narrative structure. The camera then holds Bjornstrand and Harriet Andersson in conversation during a series of scenes in which she falls alseep in his arms. Bergman uses the train compartment to keep Eva Dahlbeck and Bjornstrand in close up and in tight close up. The prolonged dialouge scenes that are contrasted with the complicated narrative framework then shift to the retrospective of Eva Dahlbeck as she is framed by a camera that pans only minimally. The storyline, after reintroducing Harriet Andersson into the film, concludes in Denmark.

Swedish Film

In 1953 Erik Hampe Faustman directed Inga Tiblad, Annalisa Ericsson, Birgitta Valberg, Eva Dahlbeck and Ulla Sjoblom in the film House of Women (Kvinnohuset). Notably, Eva Dahlbeck also that year starred in Alf Sjöberg's film Barabbas, with Yvonne Lombard and Jarl Kulle. Rolf Husberg that year wrote and directed the film All the World's Delights (All jordens frojd), starring Ulla Jacobsson, Kenne Fant and Birger Malmsten. Gustaf Molander in 1953 directed Unmarried (Glasberget) starring Hasse Ekman and Gunn Wallgren.

Swedish Film
Swedish FilmSwedish Film

Hidden in the Fog (I dimma dold) was directed in 1953 by Lars-Eric Kjellgren and starred Eva Henning, Sture Lagerwall and Sonja Wigert, its cinematographer, Gunnar Fischer. That year Lars Eric Kjellgren also directed Max von Sydow, Anne-Marie Gyllenspatz and Ingerid Vardund, Lissi Alandh in the film No Mans Woman (Ingen mans kvinna). The film also marks the first Swedish screen on screen appearance of Norwegian actress Ella Hval. Hasse Ekman in 1953 directed the film We three are making our debut (Vi tre debutera), starring Gunnar Bjornstrand and Maj-Britt Nilsson, the cinematographer to the film Gunnar Fischer. That year Eva Dahlbeck appeared in The Shadow (Skuggan), the first film directed by Kenne Fant. It was photographed by Kalle Bergholm and also starred George Rydeberg and Pia Arnell. That year Fant also directed Edvin Adolphson and Pia Skoglund in Wingbeats in the Night (Ving slag i nattan). Bror min och jag, directed in 1953 by Ragnar Frisk and starring Anna-Lise Baude included Birgitta Andersson in a small role, it being the first film in which she was to appear. Eva Dahlbeck appeared under the direction of Ake Ohberg in the 1953 film The Chief from Goingehovingden (Goingehovingden). Martin Söderhjelm in 1953 directed Fritiof Billquist in the film Dance with my Doll (Dansa min docka). Rolf Husberg in 1953 directed Swedish silent film actress Hilda Borgstrom in the film Each Heart has its Own Story (Vart hjarta har sin saga). Egil Holmsen that year directed Margit Carlqvist in the film Marianne. Carlqvist also during 1953 appeared in the film Path to Klockrike (Vagen till Klockrike), directed by Gunnar Skoglund and starring also starring Edvin Adolphson. The first two films directed by Stig Olin were released in 1953, both starring Alice Babs and Sigge Furst and both written by the director, I dur och skur, photographed by Hilding Bladh and also starring Yvonne Lombard, and Resan till dej, co-written by Hasse Ekman and photographed by Göran Strindberg, Anders Henrikson and Ulla Sjöblom having also starred in the film. Storm over Tjuro (1953), starring Gunnel Broström and Margaretha Krook and Salka Valka (1954), starring Gunnel Broström and Folke Sundquist, both directed by Arne Mattsson, were photographed by Sven Nykvist. Mattson in 1954 also directed the film Enchanted Journey (Fortroll ad vandrig).

During an interview, Ingmar Bergman told Stig Bjorkman, "Bibi has one or two lines in Smiles of a Summer Night, but she had already been in lone of my Bris films. Even at the time she had been in a lot of films: The Ghost at Glimmingehus and Dumbom. Bibi had started when she was sixteen." The Ghost at Glimmingehus (En Natt pa Glimmingehus, 1954), directed by Torgny Wickman, had also starred Begnt Logart, Gunnilla Akerrehn, Ingeborg Nyberg and Britta Ulfberg.

The Bris Soap commericial, Reklamfilm Bris, in which Bibi Andersson had appeared was one of the last of nine entitled The Princess and the Swineherd (Prinsessan och svinaherden, 1953). The commercials were filmed over a three year period and photographed by cinematographer Gunnar Fischer In Images, Ingmar Bergman writes, "Later, during the time when movie production was shut down, I put together a series of commercials for the soap Bris (Breeze), and I had alot of fun challenging stereotypes of the commercial genre by playing around with the genre itself and making miniature films in the spirit of George Melies." The Magic Show (Trollenet), starring Lennart Lindberg had appeared in 1952. Lindberg also that year appeared in the commercial The Film Shooting, with Torsten Lilliecrona. Commercials filmed in 1951 had included Bris Soap (Tvalen Bris) with Barbro Larsson and King Gustavus III (Gustavianskt). Barbro Larsson in 1952 appeared in The Inventor (Uppfinnaren) and The Rebus (Rebusen). The Film Shooting (Tredimensionellt), with actress Marion Sundh, was filmed in 1953.

Kenne Fant in 1954 directed the film Young Summer (Ung sommar), photographed by Kalle Bergholm and starring Lennart Lindberg, Birgit Lundin and Edvin Adolphson and based on a novel by Per Olof Ekström. Kenne Fant again directed Birgit Lundin in 1956 in the film I takt med tiden, written by Volodja Semitjov and photographed by Olof Ekman. That year Fant also directed The Taming of Love (Sa tukas karleken), starring Karin Ekelund and Jane Friedmann. The film was produced by Nordisk Tonefilm. Eric Hampe Faustman in 1954 directed Gull Natorp, Ulla Sjoblöm, and Marta Dorff in God the Father and the Gypsy (Gud Fader och tattaren) photographed by Swedish cinematographer Curt Jonsson and Annalisa Ericson in the film The Lunchbreak Cafe (Cafe Lunchrasten). Stig Olin in 1954 directed Hasse Ekman in his film The Yellow Squadron (Gula Divisionen) starring Meg Westergren. Dance on Roses (Dans pa rosor, 1954), starring Sickan Carlsson, was written and directed by Schamyl Bauman. Victory in the Dark (Seger i morker), directed by Gösta Folke appeared in Swedish theaters in 1954. Torgny Wickman in 1954 directed Astrid Bodin and Berit Frodi in their first appearances on screen in the film Girl Without a Name (Flicka Utan Namn), photographed by Rune Ericson and written by Volodja Semitjov. The film was produced by Sandrew-Bauman and also stars Karin Miller, Alf Kjellin and Els a-Ebben Thornblad. Swedish silent film director Alf Sjöberg in 1954 wrote and directed the film Karin Mansdotter, in which Ulla Jacobsson, Birgitta Valberg and Ulla Sjöblom appeared.

In addition to filming Smiles of a Summer Night (Sommarnattens Leende), in 1955 Ingmar Bergman directed Journey into Autmun (Dreams, Kvinnodrom). Peter Cowie writes that it was Anders Hendrikson that was to appear in the film, the role being written for him untill forfieted and taken by Gunnar Bjöstrand. Scripted by Bergman and photographed by Hilding Bladh, the film stars Eva Dahlbeck, Harriet Andersson, Inga Landre, Niama Wifstrand, Git Gay and Renee Björling.

Alf Sjöberg in 1955 wrote and directed the film Wild Birds (Vildfaglar), starring Maj-Britt Nilsson, the cinematographer to the film Martin Bodin. The film is based on the novel Nisse Bortom written by Bengt Anderberg. Anders Henrikson in 1955 directed the film Married (Giftas) in which he starred with Gösta Cederlund, Anita Björk and Mai Zetterling. The film was produced by AB Europafilm. Stig Olin that year directed Ingrid Thulin in the film Hoppsan, Borje Larsson that year directing her in the film The Dance Hall (Danssalongen) with Sonja Wigert. Stig Olin in 1955 also wrote and directed the film Mord, lilla van, photographed by Hilding Bladh and starring Inga Landre and Gösta Cederlund. The first film in which Gio Petre was to appear ,(The Merry Boys of the Fleet (Flottans muntergokar), was in theaters during 1955. Directed by Ragnar Frisk, the film starred Marianne Löfgren, Rut Holm and Rene Bjorling. Ragnar Frisk that year also directed Annalisa Ericson in the film Merry Go Round in the Mountains (Karusellen i fjallen). Gustaf Molander in 1955 directed the film The Unicorn (Enhorningen), starring Sture Lagerwall, Inga Tiblad, Edvin Adolphson and Briger Malmsten, the film's cinematographer Martin Bodin. Schamyl Bauman that year directed Darling at Sea (Alskling pa Vagen), scripted by Solve Cederstrand and Sjuth and starring Sickan Carlsson and Sigge Furst. The Last Form (Sista ringen), directed in 1955 by Gunnar Skoglund, brought George Rydeberg, Marianne Aminoff and Marta Arbin to the screen along with Margareta Henning in what would be her first film appearance. Swedish film director Torgny Wickman in 1955 directed Catherine Berg in her first film, Blocked Tracks (Blockerat spar) with Alf Kjellin and Torsten Ulliecrona. The following year, Bengt Blomgren directed and starred with Gunnel Lindblom in the film Gunpowder and Love (Krut och Karlek, 1956). He followed it with the film Linje sex, starring Margit Carlqvist and Ake Gronberg. Georege Arlin directed his first film that year Bla himmel starring Ingeborg Nyberg, Barbro Larsson, Mim Ekelund and Monica Nielsen.

Scandinavian FilmFinnish film actress Tuija Halonen was bginning to become known to film audiences in 1955 with the film Near to Sin (Lahella Syntia, Nara Synden) directed by Hannu Leminen. The previos year she had starred in the film Enchanted Night (Taikayo), directed by Willaim Markus and based on the 1946 novel by Martti Larni. She would later, in 1959, appear on the screen in Fate Makes its Move (Kohotalo Tekee Siiron) directed by Armand Lohikoski.

Hasse Ekman in 1956 directed the film Private Entrance (Engang ingang), photographed by Gunnar Fischer and starring Maj Britt Nilsson and Bibi Andersson. Rolf Husberg that year directed Anita Bjök and Brita Oberg in the film Moon over Hellesta (Moln Over Hellesta) Its script is based by the novel Moln over Hellesta, published by Swedish author Margit Soderholm a year earlier. The previous year Soderholm had published the novel Jul pa Hellesta. Photgraphed by Goran Strindberg and starring Maj-Britt Nilsson and Karlheinz Bohm, A Girl for the Summer (Sommarflickan, 1956) was brought to the screen by the directors Thomas Engel and Hakan Bergstrom. Kenne Fant in 1956 directed Eva Dahlbeck in the film Tarps Elin, the film also starring Ulf Palme, Marta Arbin and Fritiof Billquist. Mimi Pollack, who had studied at the Royal Dramatic Academy with Greta Garbo. in 1956 directed, The Right to Love (Rattaen att alska), starring Max von Sydow. Gunnar Hellström that year brought Harriet Andersson to the screen in Children of the Night (Nattbarn), starring Birgitta Olzon. Scriptwriter Barbro Boman that year directed the film It's Never Too Late (Det ar aldrig for sent). Gunnar Skoglund in 1956 brought Kristina Adolphson and Catrin Westerlund to the screen in the film Blanande hav. Arne Mattsson that year directed the film Girl in a Dressing Gown (Girl in Tails/Flickan i frack), produced by Rune Waldkranz and scripted by Herbert Grevenius. The films stars Maj-Britt Nilsson, Sigge Furst, Kerstin Duner and Elsa Prawitz. Mattsson also that year directed the film A Little Nest (Litet bo).

Bergman writes that the screenplay to The Last Couple Out (Sista Paret Ut, 1956) "had been floating around Svensk Filmindustrustri for a long time in synopsis form." He continues by writing, "Working rapidly, Sjöberg and I started churning out the screenplay for The Last Couple Out, from which Sjöberg later wrote his own version." The earlier title for the script written by Ingmar bergman had been For the Children's Sake. The film, photographed by Martin Bodin and edited by Oscar Rosander, is written around a character portrayed by Bjorn Bjelvenstam, his becoming involved romantically with characters played by Harriet Andersson, who was closing out an affair with Bergman, and Bibi Andersson, who was begining an affair with the director. Added to the plotline is the dialouge between Bjelvenstam and the character portrayed by Eva Dahlbeck. Cowie quotes Alf Sjöberg as having said,"It was an old script and marked an unhappy stage in our collaboration." Last Couple out was the first film in which Mona Andersson was to appear.

Eva DahlbeckHaving starred in a number of films, including Playing on the Rainbow (Lek pa regnbagen, Lars-Eric Kjellin 1957), a film written by Vigot Sjöman and photographed by Gunnar Fischer in which he co-starred with Mai Zetterling, Alf Kjellin wrote and directed A Girl in the Rain (Flickan i regnet) with Gunnel Lindblom, Pia Skoglund, Bibi Andersson and Marianne Bengtsson in the first film in which she was to appear as well as directing Twilight Meetings (Encounters at Dusk/Moten i skymningen (1957), based on a novel by Pers Anders Folgelstrom, with Eva Dahlbeck , Birger Malmsten and Ake Gronberg, the scriptgirl to the film having had been being Katherina (Katinka) Farago and the cinematographer again having had been being Gunnar Fischer. Arne Mattson that year directed Spring of Life (Livets Var) and No Tommorow. The following year he directed There Came Two Men, The Lady in Black (Damen i svart), with Anita Björk, Lena Granhagen and Annalisa Ericson, a film shot mostly in interior scenes with the use of low-key lighting, and Mannequin in Red (Mannekang i rott), with Rune Carlsten and Anita Björk. Hasse Ekman in 1957 directed Eva Dahlbeck, Bibi Andersson and Gunnar Bjönstrand in A Summer Place is Wanted (Summer Cottage, Sommarnoje sokes). He also that year directed With a Halo Askew (Med gloria pa sned) with Sickan Carlsson and Sture Lagerwall. Arne Ragneborn in 1957 directed Ingrid Thulin in the film Aldrig i livet. Stig Olin that year directed Guest at One's Own Home (Gast i eget hus) with Monica Nielsen and Anita Björk. Lars-Magnus Lindgren in 1957 directed the film A Dreamer's Walk (En drommares vandrig, photographed by Sven Nykvist and starring Margit Carlqvist, Jarl Kulle, Keve Helm, Inga Landre, Linnea Hillberg and Brita Oberg. Also appearing in the film is Eric Hell. Hans Lagerkvist in 1957 directed the film The Rusk (Skorpan), photographed by Martin Bodin and starring Marianne Bengtsson, Anna-Lisa Baude and Fritiof Billquist. Marianne Bengtsson that year also appeared in the film Night Light (Nattens ljus), directed by Lars-Eric Kjellgren and photographed by Ake Dahlqvist. Gunnar Bjornstrand and Birger Malmsten star with Bengtsson. Written and directed by Goran Gentele, Varmlanningarna (1957), was photographed by Karl-Erik Alberts. Not only does the film star Busk Margit Jonsson, Marta Dorff and Marta Arbin, but Greta Garbo biographer Fritiof Billquist also appears in the film.

Swedish film director Ingmar Bergman and the present author feel very much the same about the film The Brink of Life (Nara livet 1957). In his autobiography, Images, Bergman writes, "I sat watching the same film years later in the darkness, alone and influenced by no one....When the movie ended, I sat there, suprised at myself and a little annoyed- I suddenly liked the old film." While explaining Bergman introduces the film as a story written around three characters, these being portrayed in the film by Eva Dahlbeck, Bibi Andersson and Ingrid Thulin. He describes it as "warm, honest and intelligently done, with first-class performances." He also gives a nod to Max Willen, the film's cameraman, who during the filming was "an adequate craftsman without any sensitivity". Peter Cowie writes, "Brink of Life is the first of those Bergman movies in which dialog and characterization take precedence over scenery and locations."

Norwegian Film director Arne Skouen in returned to directing in 1957 with the film Nine Lives (We Die Alone/ Ni liv) produced by by Fotorama and photographed by Ragnar Sorensen. The film stars Lydia Opoien, Henny Moan and Grete Norda. He continued the following year by directing A God and His Servants (Herren og hans tjener, 1958) based on the 1955 play by Axel Kielland. The film, photographed by Finn Bergan, stars Urda Arneberg, Anna-Lise Tangstad and Wenche Foss.

In 1958 Gösta Stevens and Hasse Ekman co-scripted two films that were directed by Ekman, The Great Amateur (Den Store amatoren), with Marianne Bengtsson, and Jazz Boy (Jazzgossen), in which he starred with Maj-Britt Nilsson and Alice Babs. Goran Gentele in 1958 brought Lena Söderblom to the screen in the film Miss April (Froken April), in which she starred with Gunnar Björnstrand. Froken April was the film that would introduce Swedish actress Gunilla Ponten. In 1958, Jan Molander directed Harriet Andersson in Woman in Leopardskin (Kvinna i leopard), which, adapted from his own screenplay, was his debutorial film as a director. The film also stars Ulf Palme, Renee Bjorling, Siv Ericks, Mona Malm. Stig Olin that year directed Andersson in Commander of the Navy (Flottans overman). Stig Olin that year brought the film You are My Adventure (Du ar mitt aventyr) to the screen. Greta Garbo biographer Fritiof Billquist appeared on screen with Astrid Bodin, Ann-Marie Gyllenspetz, Git Gay and Ulla-Bella Fridh in the film Travel to Sun and Spring (Far Till Sol och Var), directed by Lars-Eric Kjellgren and photographed by Martin Bodin

In 1959 Hasse Ekman directed the films Good Heavens (Goodnes Gracious/Himmel och pannaka) and Miss Chic (Froken Chic), both starring Sickan Carlsson and co-scripted by Gösta Stevens. Both films were photographed by Martin Bodin. Alf Kjellin that year returned Alice Babs to the screen in the film Swinging at the Castle (Det svanger pa slottet, which also starred Yvonne Lombard and Lena Granhagen. Goran Gentele in 1959 brought Jar Kulle and Lena Söderblom to the screen in the film The Theif in the Bedroom (Sangkammartjuven.

In 1959 Arne Mattsson directed Rider in Blue (Ryttare i blatt), the first film in which the actress Solveig Ternström was to appear, and Lend me your Wife (Far jag lana din fru?), with Annalisa Ericson. In 1960, Mattsson directed When Darkness Falls (Na morkret faller) with Nils Asther and Birgitta Pettersson and Summer and Sinners (Sommar och sydare) with Gio Petre, Yvge Gamlin and Elsa Prawitz. In 1961, he followed with The Summer Night is Sweet (Lovely is the Summer Night, Ljuvlig ar sommarnatten), photographed by Tony Forsberg and starring Marta Albin, Elsa Prawitz, Tekla Sjoblom and Christina Carlwind in her first appearance on the screen.

Kenne Fant in 1959 directed the film The Love Game (Den kara leken) with Bibi Andersson, Sven Lindberg and Lars Ekborg, his following it in 1960 with The Wedding Day (Brollopsdagen), in which Bibi Andersson stars with Elsa Carlsson. Both films were photographed by Swedish cinematographer Max Wilen. Alf Sjöberg in 1960 directed Ingrid Thulin and Mona Andersson in the film The Judge (Domaren), the film's cinematographer Sven Nykvist. That year Rolf Husberg directed the films Av hjartans lust and Tarningen ar karstad starring Anita Björk and Gio Petre. Hasse Ekman in 1960 wrote and directed both The Decimals of Love (Karleckens decimaler), based on a novel by Gösta Gustaf-Jansons and starring Eva Henning and Eva Dahlbeck and On the Beach in the Park (Pa en bank i park), in which he starred with Lena Granhagen and Sigge Furst. Helena Brodin appeared in her first film in 1960, Three Wishes (Three Desire/Tre Onskningar). Directed by Goran Gentele, the film also starred Eva Dahlbeck and Mimi Nelson.

After having directed the film The Pleasuregarden (Lustgarden, 1961), a film scripted by Ingmar Bergman and Erland Josephson, photographed by Gunnar Fischer and starring the "polished performances" (Robert Emmet Long) of Bibi Andersson, Gunnar Bjönstrand, Gösta Cederlund and Sickan Carlsson, Alf Kjellin directed Harriet Andersson in his film Siska-en kvinnobild, in 1962. The film was photographed by Gunnar Fischer. Ragnar Frisk directed Anita Lindblom in We Fix Everything (Vi fixar allt) in 1961, in Tre dar i buren in 1963 and again in Three Days A Vagabond (Tre dar pa luffen) in 1964. Vi fixar allt was the first film in which the actress Anna Sundqvist was to appear. Also in the film is Swedish actress Sangrid Nerf. Hasse Ekman in 1961 directed the film The Job/Braces (Stoten) with Gunnar Hellstrom, Tor Isedal, Maude Adelson and Ann-Mari Wiman. That year the first film directed by Lars Magnus Lindgren, There are no Angles (Anglar, finns dom) was to star Christine Schollin and Margit Carlqvist.

During 1962, Sandrew Film produced the film One Zeroe Too Many (En Nolla For Mycket) directed by Bjorje Nyberg and photographed by Hilding Bladh. The film stars Birgitta Andersson, Toivo Pawlo, Mona Malm and Lill-Babs.

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