Silent Film

måndag, juli 10, 2017

Silent Film 1918


In part one of the Swedish Silent Film The Outlaw and His Wife (Berg Ejvind och hans hustru, 1918) Victor Sjostrom on screen portays a character that is introduced with an iris out, the previous scene which included secondary characters having concluded with an iris in; he is drinking from an Icelandic stream in medium close shot, the camera then cutting to a wider angle, it photographing him from the waist up to show more of the stream in the background. After a cut in, Sjöström cuts back to the shot, but only briefly, to show that his character is to the right of the screen, in profile, looking at what is offscreen to the left of the screen. Almost on action, he then abruptly cuts to a full shot in which the character has reversed the relation of his look to the side of the frame, his then cutting to a longshot as his character leaves the frame. He cuts to a vignette shot of his character facing the opposite direction that he does in the scene, and then to another accompanying a dialouge intertitle so that it is as though the line of dialouge has been delivered in close shot.
Throughout the rest of part one Victor Sjostrom carries the story forward, it introducing the woman he will marry in a sidelighted, near over the shoulder, near quarter shot, it being that she hires him for a month and then later makes him steward. While part two begins with establishing shots of the exterior, the horizon line often parallel to the top of the frame line ( a wall is later used to show a vertical division of frame as two lovers meet behind it), there is no interruption of continuity between it and part three, the two not linked by any camera device, but the scene is quickly moved to an interior. In part three she asks him to marry her and he tries to decline while declaring his love for her (Sjöström cuts back and forth between their dialouge and a retrospective scene during which he uses iris in and iris out to show ellipsis).
The rest of the film is of their journey together. In part four he cuts from a three quarter full shot of his character facing the right of the screen going towards her to embrace her to a shot of both of them in medium shot, her in his arms while he is facing the left of the screen. Rather than using suture between shot reverse shots, he holds the camera on them during the dialouge and concludes it by cutting to a closer angle of his character having lowered his body and putting his head on her stomach. During the dialouge which beings part seven an expository intertitle accompanies his interpolating a shot which would have been included in a previous scene and the shot from part four of his being near to her is repeated, their dialouge during while snowbound then continuing.
 Sjöström had written four hundred letters to his co-star Edith Erastoff, the woman he had married. About the film, Einar Lauritzen wrote, "But Sjöström never let the drama of human relations get lost in the grandeur of the scenery." Tom Milne sees the film as being an example of a director articulating "the sense of space and liberty in the use of landscape which was already one of the distinguishing marks of the Swedish cinema."
Par Lagerkvist published the essay Modern Theater (Teater) in 1918, it purporting, and possibly rightly so, that the theater of Ibsen lacked what was needed for then modern audiences. 1919 saw the publication of Par Lagerkvist's play The Secret of Heaven (Himlens hemlighet). Agnes von Krusenstjerna that year published the volume Helenas fösta karlek.
Bille August has recently filmed an adaptation of Lagerlof's Jerusalem- for Victor Sjöström and AB Svenska Biograteatern it became The Sons of Ingmar (Ingmarssonera,1918) starring Harriet Bosse and Tore Svennberg with the director and Karin, Daughter of Ingmar (Karin Ingmarsdotter 1920, six reels), starring Tora Teje, Harriet Bosse and Bertil Malmstedt with the director, thier having been filmed by cinematographer Julius Jaenzon and the screenplays to both film's having had been being Sjöström's; for Molander, Ingmar's Inheritance (Ingmarsarvet, 1925) with Marta Hallden and Mona Martensson and To the East (Till Osterland, 1926). Both star Lars Hanson and co-starring Molander. It had been Mauritz Stiller that had visited Selma Lagerlöf in Dalecarli to discuss the filming of adaptations to the novel. Sjöström had in fact hoped to film Liljecrona's Home rather than Jerusalem. Writing about The Sons of Ingmar, Bengt Forslund notes, "The most striking change that Sjöström introduces in his screenplay is to treat, daringly, the Kingdom of Heaven as a realistic setting...The scenery provides comic relief without seeming ridiculous. " Shooting the film mostly on location, "Sjöström developed dramatic moments that do not have the same intensity in the book" (Forslund). Forslund concludes by writing, "Otherwise, I still find The Sons of Ingmar less cinematic than The Outlaw and His Wife, less personal in its narrative technique." Of the actors in the film, he remarks, "Harriet Bosse seems a little miscast in the role of Brita, which certainly should have been played by an actress ten years younger." In 1918, the first films to be directed by Sidney Franklin, who would later direct Greta Garbo in the silent film Wild Orchids, appeared in theaters, among them being Bride of Fear (five reels), The Safety Curtain (five reels) with Norma Talmadge, The Forbidden City (five reels) and Her Only Way (six reels), both films also starring Norma Talmadge. That year Fred Niblo, who would later direct Greta Garbo in the silent film The Mysterious Lady as well as Norma Talmadge in Camille (1927, nine reels), also began directing, his films having been The Marriage Ring, Fuss and Feathers (five reels), Happy Though Married (five reels) and When Do We Eat?. Director Paul Powell during 1918 teamed Rudolph Valentino and Marry Warren for the film All Night (five reels).
In 1919, Victor Sjöström wrote and directed His Lord's Will (His Grace's Will, Hans nads testamente) from the writings of Hjalmar Bergman. His Lord's Will (1940), starring Olof Sandborg, Barbro Kollberg and Alf Kjellin and scripted by Stina Bergman was directed by Per Lindberg. During 1919 the novel God's Orchid, written by Swedish playwright Hjalmar Bergman, would be published, followed in 1921 by the novel Thy Rod and Thy Staff and in 1930 by Jac the Clown.
Also in 1919, the Swedish director Ivan Hedqvist directed The Downy Girl. John W. Brunius that year directed the film The Girl of Solbakken (Synnove Solbakken), based on the novel written by Bjornstjerne Bjornson in 1857, the assistant director with Brunius having been Einar Bruun. Starring Lars Hanson and Karin Molander, it was the first film in which the actresses Ellen Dall, Ingrid Sandahl and Solveig Hedengran would each appear. The film reunited Sam Ask with John W. Bruinus, their both having co-written the script, as with Masterkatten i stovlar. Tytti Soila, in regard to the editing of the film writes, "The film's conflict of ideas is condensed in a sequence where there is cross-cutting between a religious revival meeting at Synnove's home and young people celebrating Midsummer by dancing in a meadow." Einar Bruun in 1919 directed the film Surrogatet, with Karin Molander for Filmindustri Scandia, Stockholm.

      Danish Film director Robert Dinesen in 1919 filmed the first of two films in Sweden, Jefthas dottar, with Signe Kolthoff, the second having been Odets redskap with Astri Torsell and Clara Schonfeld filmed in 1922.

   
Conrad Nagel appeared in his first films, The Lion and the Mouse (Tom Terriss, five reels), Redhead and Little Women (H. Knoles, six reels), with Dorothy Bernard, Isabel Lamon and Lillian Hall. Theda Bara was to appear in A Woman There Was, directed by J. Gordon Edwards. She wrote "How I became a Vampire" for the June 1919 issue of Forum magazine and was interviewed by Olga Petrova for Shadowland Magazine in 1920 and for Motion Picture Magazine in 1922, both instances of one actor interviewing another.

The selcted poems of Carl Gustaf Verner von Heidenstam were published in 1919. The Swedish poet had published the volume Nya Dikterin in 1915. He is the author of historical novel Karolinerna.
Sir Arne's Treasure (Herr Arne's pengar 1919, seven reels), with Mary Johnson, co-scripted by Molander, continued Sjöström's filming of the novels of Selma Lagerlöf, its director Mauritz Stiller. The film was photographed by Julius Jaenzon. Ingmar Bergman has said, "I think Stiller with his Erotikon and Herr Arne's Treasure is alot of fun. And his Atonement of Gosta Berling, too, is a fresh, powerful, vital film."


Where Selma Lagerlof and Mauritz Stiller had differred was on adaptation; Stiller perhaps seeing film as more visual, or theatrical, Gösta Werner having written that "Stiller later regretted preserving the long winded intertitles copied from the novel" (Tytti Soila) while filming Sir Arne's Treasure, or it may have having had been being that Stiller, as a compliment to Lagerlöf, had begun searching for a connection to the theater that both he and Gustav Molander had studied in Helsinki and similarities within Scandanavian literature. Of the film, Robert Payne writes, "he employed every trick known to cinema: close ups, dissolves, masks, superimposed images, sudden changes of tempo- a slow dreamy pace for the visionary scenes and an unbelieveably fast pace for the scenes of fighting...The film was tinted, thus giving it a heightened sense of reality." Author on Scandinavian Film Forsyth Hardy remarked upon the editing of the film by writing, "It also had a visual harmony, absent from some of the earlier films where the transition from interior to exterior was too abrupt." Wanda Rothgardt also appears in the film.
The Song of the Scarlet Flower (Sangen om den eldroda blomman, 1919), was to star Lars Hanson and Edith Erastoff. The Song of the Scarlet Flower (1956) with Gunnel Lindblom and Anita Björk was directed by Gustaf Molander. The tinting of the first film provides a contrast between its individual scenes, moods and uses of nature as a background, its narrative following a structure of seperate chapters.

Particularly interested in the interrelated components of each film being part of the film in its entirety, David Bordwell writing with Kristin Thompson, also regards the emotion of the spectator during any sequence of a film as being related to the viewing of the film in its entirety; seperate scenes that are tinted belong to the film in its entirety- the film after it has been edited. Narrative and stylistic elements in film form are often interrelated. Long before Bordwell, Raymond Spttiswoode had written, "The film director is continually analysing his material into sections, which, in a great variety of ways, can be altered to suit his purpose. At the same time he is synthesizing these sections into larger units which represent his attitude toward the world, and reveal the design he finds displayed in it. The analysis is an analysis of structure; of the filmic components which the director discerns in the natural world."
Lucy Fischer in fact remarks upon the narrative unity with Jacques Feyder's The Kiss, noting that to view the film as an entirety, the spectator must combine different events from seperate sequences, connecting the plot events centered around Garbo's character. Oddly, she later discusses the background to narrative as conveying the thematic, not in as much as man's relationship to nature can depict the emotion inherent within storyline, as often in the films of Stiller and Sjöström, but in that the mise en scene of the silent films of Greta Garbo, in its being dramatic, provides an embellishment of the narrative through its spatial composition of the image- it being Garbo that is crossing the set and sitting into the shot, it being a melodrama taking place within a world in which she can be otherworldly. Raymond Spottiswoode, writing in 1933, as well saw film as being comprised of its component parts. The sequence is seen as a series of shots that taken as part of the film as a whole add to its untiy. Spottiswoode describes there being implicational montage, where the sequences are seen in their entirety, their then containing within them content that has a relation to the film as a whole through implication, a series of shots producing its effect, creating its significance, in combination with other sequences in the film.
Greta Garbo photographer William Daniels continued his early career as second camerman under the direction of Eric von Strohiem, one film having had been being Blind Husbands (eight reels, 1919), starring Fay Holderness and Francellia Billington, another having been the film The Devil's Passkey (1920, seven reels), starring Una Tevelyan, Mae Busch and Maud George. Although one of the best films of the decade, the silent Blind Husbands, was concerned with marriage and the marital, one actress that had made several marriage dramas had been Katherine MacDonald. Of those she had appeared in were The Beauty Market (Campbell, 1919, nine reels), The Woman Thou Gavest Me, The Notorious Miss Lisle (1920) and Passion's Playground (1920).

     To add to any new look at marriage that was taking place as Hollywood peered through the keyhole into a modernity of what was being shown of the bedroom, DeMille in 1919 directed Why Change Your Husband (six reels), Male and Female (nine reels) with Lila Lee and For Better or Worse (seven reels), his having begun a series of films on marital relations in 1918 with Old Wives for New (six reels), each film scripted by Jeanie Macpherson. Macpherson, who had begun writing screenplays for DeMille with the 1915 film The Captive, starring Blanche Sweet, in 1920 continued with the director by scripting the film Something to Think About (seven reels), starring Gloria Swanson. Fred Niblo directed the film The Marriage Ring (five reels) in 1918. It has been offered that the films of DeMille are not only erotic comedies but reflect the becoming a commodity of matrimony and the reification of married life through the exchange values employed within suture and the syntax of shot reverse shot, the commodification of female sexuality within gendered spectatorship; within a model of the new woman a female subjectivity is constructed that is a result of consumerism. Whether or not the influence is direct, Einar Lauritzen has attributed the success of Mauritz Stiller's film Erotikon (When We Are Married, 1920), starring Lars Hanson, Tora Teje , Guken Cederborg and Karin Molander, to the films of DeMille. Added to that, in that there is a connection between the marriage dramas of De Mille and von Stroheim and the early film of Ernst Lubitsch, author Kenneth Macgowan having written that "in a wittier way" than the earlie two directors, Lubitsch had, "contributed to the delinquency of the screen", in particular with the silent film The Marriage Circle, in regard to the influence Mauritz Stiller may have had, Birgitta Steene writes, "They have often reminded foriegn critics of the comedies of Ernst Lubitsch, but actually the elegant eroticism characteristic of both Lubitsch and Bergman finds its source in the works of the Swedish motion picture director Mauritz Stiller." The film was photographed by Henrik Jaenzon. An emailed newsletter from Kino video during April of 2006 announced the release in the United States of Erotikon on DVD; the film is introduced by author Peter Cowie.
Mauritz Stiller is particularly noted for having directed Sjöström in two comedies for AB Svenska Biograteatern, Wanted A Film Actress,Thomas Graal's basta film, 1917), with Karin Molander, and Marriage ala mode (Thomas Graal's first child, Thomas Graal's basta barn, 1918). Rune Carlsten and Henrik Jaenzon both appeared on screen during Thomas Graal's Best Film. Molander continued as director and writer of Thomas Graal's Ward (Thomas Graal's mindling, 1922), photographed by Adrian Bjurman. Greta Garbo had seen the film Erotikon before her having met Stiller. Erotic comedy was later explored by the Finnish director Teuvo Tulio in his film You Want Me Like This (Sellaisena kuin sina minut balusit, 1944). (
   

Danish film director Lau Lauritzen directed five films in Sweden in 1920, En hustru till lans with Karen Winther, Flickorna i Are, with Kate Fabian, Karleck och bjornjakt with Si Holmquist, Vil de vare min kone-i morgen and Damernes ven. Although The President (Praesidenten, 1919), starring Elith Pio and Olga Raphael-Linden, is not distinguished as being remarkable, it is one of the only two that Carl Th Dreyer made in Denmark before his going abroad, his later establishing a small body of work that would be indelible upon filmmaking. His films are disparate stylisticly, differing in their use of technique; Dreyer has been quoted as having remarked upon his having tried to find a style.
The films of Clara Kimball Young were the springboard for scriptwriter Lenore Coffee, whose first films as a screenwriter, The Better Wife (William Earle, 1919,five reels) and The Forbidden Woman (1920) had starred the actress.
Finnish silent film director Erkki Karu directed two films for Suomen Biografi in 1920, both photographed by Finnish cinematographer Frans Ekebom, War Profiteer Kaikus Disrupted Summer Vacation (Sotagubishi Kaiun Hairitty Kesaloma) and Student Pollovaara's Betrothal (Ylioppilas Pollovaaran kihlaus).
One of the most beautiful silent films ever made by Mary Pickford, Pollyanna (Paul Powell, six reels) was filmed in 1920. The film also stars William Courtleigh. Pickford also that year made the film Suds (five reels) under the direction of John Francis Dillon. The film also stars William Austin. Mary Pickford was portrayed by Swedish actress Agneta Ekmanner in the 1974 teleplay Bakom masker, directed by Lars Amble and based on the play by Hjalmer Bergman. In a film that would almost seem a yardstick for many of the films that would comprise the rest of the silent film era, Douglas Fairbanks starred under the direction of Fred Niblo in the film The Mark of Zorro.
 
Covergirl for Photoplay Magazine, Norma Talmadge was also that year directed by Roy W. Neill in the film A Woman Gives (six reels). A Daughter of Two World (James Young, six reels) and She Loves and Lies were also to star Norma Talmadge that year.

     Norma Shearer appeared in films in the year 1920, among them being The Sign On the Door ( Herbert Brenon, seven reels), The Flapper (Alan Crosland, five reels), The Restless Sex (six reels) written by Frances Marion and The Stealers (seven reels, William Christy Cabanne).
   
     In 1920 Dorothy Gish not only starred in the film Little Miss Rebellion (five reels), directed by George Fawcett, but also had begun filming with the director F. Richard Jones, under whose direction she starred in Flying Pat (1920, five reels), with Kate Bruce, The Ghost in the Garret (1921) and The County Flapper (1922) with Glenn Hunter and Mildred Marsh. Lillian Gish writes about Garbo's later asking her to introduce her to Griffith, which she did, and of Garbo's asking her how she should dress. Garbo had said to her, "It would be nice to have dinner at your house."
During 1920 Sjöström also directed Master Samuel (A Dangerous Pledge,Masterman), in which he starred with Greta Almroth and Concordia Selander. Photographed by Julius Jaenzon, it was scripted by Hjalmar Bergman, as was the 1921 film Fru Mariannes friare, directed by Gunnar Klintberg and starring Astri Torsell, Inga Ellis and Aslaug Lie-Eide, the cinematographer to the film having been Robert Olsson. Gunnar Klintberg would continue by directing Astri Torsell in two other Swedish Silent films, The Love Child, with Julia Hakansson, and Lord Saviles brott.

     The Fishing Villiage
(Chains, Fiskebyn) was filmed in 1920 by Stiller and Henrik Jaenzon, it starring Lars Hanson. Appearing in the film was Hildur Carlburg, who that year also appearred in the film The Witch Woman (Prastankan), shot in Sweden by Danish film director Carl Dreyer. Sölve Cederstrand directed his first film, Ett odesdigert inkognito, starring Tage Alquist and Signe Selid.

A Fortune Hunter (En Lyckoriddarre, 1921 six reels) starring Gosta Ekman, Mary Johnson, Hilda Forsslund and Greta Garbo, her appearing with her sister Alva Gustafsson in a scene that takes place in a tavern. In 1922 he directed Iron Wills (Harda viljor).

Directed for Filmindustri Scandia, Stockholm in 1920, the first three films by Pauline Brunius, De lackra skaldjuren, Ombytta roller and Trollslanden, were also the first three films in which the actress Frida Winnerstrand was to appear.

Rune Carlsten in 1920 wrote and directed A Modern Robinson (Robinson i skargarden) with Mary Johnson. He that year also directed Mary Johnson, with Tora Teje, in the film Family Traditions (Familjens traditioner), which he scripted as well. The film was produced by Svensk Filmindustri
Danish silent film director A. W. Sandberg in 1920 wrote and directed two films for the Nordisk Films Kompagni in which the actress Clara Wieth starred, House of Fatal Love (Kaerlighedsvalen) and A Romance of Riches (Stodderprinsessen), in which she starred with Gunnar Tolnaes. Sandberg also that year directed the film Adrift (Det dode Skib), with Valedmar Psilander, Stella Lind and Else Frolich.
Ivan Hedqvist in 1921 directed the film Pilgrimage to Kevlar (Vallfarten till Kevlaar) starring Jessie Wessel, which he followed in 1924 with Life in the Country (Livet pa landet), photographed by Julius Jaenzon.  Let No Man Put Asunder (Hogre andamal, 1921) starred Edith Erastoff, her director having been Rune Carlsten. Klaus Albrecht that year directed Lili Ziedner in the film The Bimbini Circus (Cirkus Bimbini).  Tyra Ryman was introduced to her later costar Greta Garbo in 1922 at PUB by Eric Petschler, who directed both in Luffar-Peter. Writing about another film directed that year by Mauritz Stiller, Tom Milne sees the film Johan as having contributed to the technique and to the look of the film The Bride of Gromdal directed by Carl Th. Dreyer.
Carl Th. Dreyer in 1921 directed the silent film Leaves from Satan's Book (Blade af Satans Bog).
In the United States during 1921, Mary Pickford continued acting with the silent filmLittle Lord Fauntleroy.


In 1922, Victor Sjöström wrote and directed the films Love's Crucible (Vem domer), with Gosta Ekman and Jenny Hasselqvist and Ivan Hedqvist, The Hellship, from a screenplay written by Hjalmar Bergman and starring Matheson Long and Jenny Hasselqvist and Julia Cederblad in the first film in which she was to appear, both films having had been being filmed by Julius Jaenzon.

 The Swedish director Gustaf Edgren contributed The Young Lady of Bjorneborg (Froken pa Bjorneborg, 1922), photographed by Adrian Bjurman and starring Rosa Tilman, Elsa Wallin and the actress Edit Ernholm in her first film. Sigurd Wallen that year directed his first film Andessonskans Kalle with Stina Berg and Anna Diedrich, his following it with Andessonskans Kalle pa nya upptag with Edvin Adolphson, the debut film of Mona Martenson.  That year Ragnar Ring wrote and directed En Vikingafilm, with Harald Wehlnor and Sigrid Ahlstrom.
Karin Boye, the Swedish poet began publishing in 1922 with the volume Clouds. She continued in 1924 with Hidden Lands and in 1927 with The Hearths. Swedish poet Birger Sjoberg in 1922 published Frida's Songs.
Writing about the 1922 Finnish Silent Film, Tytta Soila notes, "Perhaps one might say that the fortune of Suomi-Filmi, and thus the future of Finnish cinema, was established by portraying the lives of two strong female characters: Anna-Liisa and Hannah. Subsequently, many Finnish films were to have a strong female character at the center of the action."
In 1922 Rudolf Valentino was in an early role, starring with Gloria Swanson in the film Beyond the Rocks (Sam Wood); the only existant copy of the film was found recently and the film, readying for distribution in United States during 2005, had its premiere in Amsterdam at the Filmuseum's Biennale festival. In her autobiography Swanson on Swanson, the actress gives an account of making of the film. "Everyone wanted Beyond the Rocks to be every luscious thing Hollywood could serve up in a single picture: the sultry glamour of Gloria Swanson, the steamy Latin magic of Rudolph Valentino, a rapturous love story byb Elinor Glyn, and the tango as it was meant to be danced, by the master himself. In the story I played a poor but aristocratic English girl who is married off to an elderly millionaire, only to meet the lover of her life on her honeymoon." After describing the fun she had off the set with Valentino, with whom she often had dinner, she concludes, "Several months later he married Natacha Rambova, and from then on he and I saw each other seldom." Valentino had in 1921 starred in the silent film Camille (Ray C. Smallwood, six reels) with Patsy Ruth Miller and Consuelo Flowerton.
It is only with sincere appreciation for for the Silent Film series aired on Turner Classic Movies on Sunday Nights that the best of luck should be wished to Robert Osborne and Charles Tabesh at their appearing at the screening of silent films- Robert Osborne was present at the San Francisco Silent Film Festival for the July 14, 2007 showing of Camille. The film was included in the Greta Garbo Signature released in 2005 near to the 100th birthday of the actress Greta Garbo along with a section entitled TCM archive: Greta Garbo Silents.
By then a producer for United Artists, D. W. Griffith followed in 1923 by directing Carol Dempster in the film The White Rose with Mae Marsh (twelve reels).

 Lon Chaney in 1922 starred in the film Flesh and Blood (five reels).

Norma Shearer first appeared in a starring role in 1922 in the film The Man Who Paid (five reels), directed by Oscar Apfel. Rudolf Valentino in 1922 would appear with Wanda Hawley in the film The Young Rajah (Phil Rosen), the screenplay to the film written by June Mathis, who adapted the script from a novel by ames Ames Mitchell. Valentino would also that year appear with Dorothy Dalton in Moran of the Lady Letty (George Melford).

Filmed in Sweden by Danish silent film director Benjamin Christensen, 1922 saw the release of the long awaited film Haxan (Witchcraft Through the Ages). The film, recently included in the films of Janus Films and in the silent film from Criterion, in the United States, was photographed by Johan Ankerstjerne and written by Christensen, who appears in the film with Ella la Cour, Emmy Schonfeld, Kate Fabian, Elisabeth Christensen, Astrid Holm and Elith Pio. Notably Alice O Fredricks and Tora Teje also appear in the film. In a film that to Sweden was to be its Intolerance, Christensen numerously uses the iris in to punctuate the end of a particular scene and the iris out in the subsequent shot to begin the adjacent scene; he goes so far as to use both during the same shot. Raymond Sptossiwoode remarked upon the fade in and fade out, along with the dissolve and wipe, as being something that was to "produce a softening effect, an indeterminate space between successive shots", his delegating it to being "the mark of the termination of an incident or of a defined period of time". German director Paul Wegener, two years earlier than Christensen's film, released a remake of his film The Golem (Der Golem), which he had first filmed in 1915.
Gunnar Hede's Saga (1922, seven reels), directed by Mauritz Stiller, and photographed Pby Julius Jaenzon, starring Pauline Brunius and Julia Cederblad, is based the novel En Herrgardsaggen by Selma Lagerlöf. Forsyth Hardy on Gunnar Hede's Saga writes, "Again there was a distinctive combination of a powerfully dramatic story and a magnificient setting in the northern landscape. It was the first film in which actress Lotten Olsson was to appear.
The King of Boda (Tyranny of Hate, Bodakungen, 1920) was the first film to bear the name of Gustaf Molander as director. It was also the first film to be photographed by cinematographer Adrian Bjurman. The film stars Egil Eide and Wanda Rothgardt. Continuing the filming of the novels of Lagerlöf, he directed Birgit Sergelius and Pauline Brunius in Charlotte Lowenskold (1930). Charlotte Lowenskold is the second in a trilogy of short stories written by Selma Lagerlöf, each of them having the Scandinavian landscape of Varmland as their background. The beginning volume, Lowenskolska Ringen was published in 1925, the third volume, Anna Svard having appeared in 1928. Victor Sjostrom had starred with Wanda Rothgart and Gunn Wallgren in the first filming of The Word (Ordet, 1943) under the direction of Molander, the actor Rune Lindstrom having written the screenplay. Victor Sjostrom also acted under Molander's direction in the films The Fight Goes On (Striden gar Vidare, 1941),in which Sjostrom appeared with Renee Bjorling and Ann-Margret Bjorlin, it having had been being the debut of the actress in film, Det Brinner en Eld (1943), in which Sjöström appeared with Lars Hanson and Inga Tiblad and Kvartetten som Sprangdes (1950). If as though to either to complement or to counter the use of mise en scene and Victor Sjöström's use of landscape in early Swedish cinema, Molander is a director of the interior scene. Tytti Soila writes, "Particularly in the melodramas, Molander used the composition of the image with the purpose of showing something essential about the existential situation of the characters. The pictures are 'tight' and on the verge of being claustrophobic, as props and other details of the set fill the frame, competing for room with the characters."
Gustaf Edgren in 1923 wrote and directed the film People of Narke (Narkingarna) photographed by Adrian Bjurman and starring Anna Carlsten, Gerda Bjorne and Maja Jerlström in her first appearence on screen, the director following it in 1924 with The King of Trollebo (Trollebokungen), an adaptation of the 1917 novel scripted by Sölve Cederstrand and photographed by C.A. Söström, the film having starred Ivar Kalling, Weyeler Hildebrand and Signe Ekloff.
Per Lindberg directed his first film in 1923, Norrtullsligan written by Hjalmar Bergman and starring Tora Teje, Egil Eide, Stina Berg, Linnea Hillberg and Nils Asther, as did William Larsson, who directed Jenny Tschernichin, Jessie Wessel and Frida Sporrong in the film Halsingar and Karin Swanström, who directed and starred with Karin Gardtman and Ann Mari Kjellgren in the film Boman at the Exhibition (Boman pa utstallningen) for Scandias Filmbyra and Svensk Filmindustri. Halsingar was also to be the first of many films photgraphed by Swedish cinematographer Henning Ohlson. Per Lindgren that year directed a second film scripted by Hjalmar Bergman, Anna Klara and her Brothers (Anna Clara och hennes broder), it starring Anna-Britt Ohlsson, Hilda Borgström, Karin Swanström, Linnea Hillberg, Hilda Borgström and Margit Manstad in what would be her first appearance on the siler screen. The film was photographed by Ragnar Westfelt. Bror Abelli in 1923 directed his first two films, including the film Janne Modig.
Ragnar Widestedt in 1923 directed Agda Helin and Jenny Tschernichin-Larsson in the film Housemaids (Hemslavinnor), written by Ragnar-Hylten-Cavallius. Froken Fob (1923) was directed by Elis Ellis and photographed by Adrian Bjurman. Sven Bardach photographed his first film in 1923, Andersson, Petterson och Lundstrom, under the direction of Carl Barklind. The film stars Vera Schmiterlow and Mimi Pollock, both of whom were aquaintances of Greta Garbo, Inga Tiblad, Gucken Cederborg and Edvin Adolphson. Fredrik Anderson in 1923 directed En rackarunge, with Elsa Wallin and Mia Grunder. Gustaf V, King of Sweden is listed as being in the film. The film was photographed by Swedish cinematographer Sven Bardach.
Danish silent film directors Benjamin Christensen and Carl Th. Dreyer, who both had begun as scriptwriters for Nordisk in 1912, would by 1923 have travelled to Germany, as Urban Gad, Asta Nielsen and Stellan Rye had earlier. Christensen would star in Dreyer's 1924 film Mikail (Chained) in addition to directing the film Seine Frau, die Unbekannte (1924) while there.
Danish actress Olga d'Org starred in three films for Nordisk Films Kompagni, all of which were directed by A.W. Sandberg, including the 1923 film The Hill Park Mystery (Nedbrudte nerver).
Finnish film director Karl Fager in 1923 brought the film The Old Baron of Rautakyla (Rautakylan Vanha Parooni) to the screen.
John Lindlof in 1924 directed Man of Adventure (Odets man) with Inga Tiblad and Uno Henning and photographed by Gustav A Gustafson. Sigurd Wallen that year directed Inga Tiblad with Einar Froberg in Grevarna pa Svanta, photographed by Henrik Jaenzon. Theodor Berthels in 1924, wrote and directed the film People of the Simlanga Valley (Folket i Simlangsdalen) with Mathias Taube and Greta Almroth and directed the film The Girl from Paradise (Flickan fran Paradiset). Both films were photographed by Swedish cinematographer Adrian Bjurman. Ragnar Ring that year directed Bjorn Mork and Nar millionera rulla. Ivar Kage in 1924 directed Gosta Hillberg and Edvin Adolphson in the film Where the Lighthouse Flashed (Dar fryen blinkar) for Svensk Ornfilm. Rune Carlsten in 1924 wrote and directed The Young Nobleman (Unga greven tar flickan och priset). Hellwig Rimmen that year directed and photgraphed the film Hogsta vinsten. Silent Film Greta Garbo

Swedish Film




Swedish Film




John W. Brunius
directed two films that year, botth written by screen writer Pelle Stille, The Two of Us (Vi tva) in which Edvin Adolphson appeared as an actor with
Margit Manstad, Marta Ekstrom and Anna-Lisa Froberg, the film having had been being the first film in which the
actress was to appear, and The Doctor's Secret (Doktorns
hemlighet
) starring Pauline Brunius, Ann-Marie Brunius and Marta Ekstrom. Gustaf
Bergman directed his first film that year, The Dangerous Game (Den farliga leken), starring Jenny Hasselqvist, Olga Andersson and Elsa Wallin, his also during 1930 having directed Vera Schmiterlow and Anna-Lisa Baude in the film A Woman's Tommorow (En Kvinnas Morgondag). Swedish cinematographer Harald Berglund in 1930 began filming under the direction of Ragnar Ring on the film Lyckobreven. Gustaf Edgren that year directed the film The Crown's Cavaliers/ Crown escort
(Kronans kavaljerer) with Stina Berg and Lisa Wirstrom in her first appearance on the screen as an actress. In 1930 G?sta Ekman and Stina
Berg appeared in the film For Her Sake (For hennes skull)
written by Ivar Johansson directed by Paul Merzbach, which also starred
Inga Tiblad. In regard to the tradition in Scandinavian filmmaking of inPcorporating the enviornment into the storyline and the transition from silent film to sound, author Forsyth Hardy looks toward Hollywood to describe For hennes skull only to clarify the technique Gustaf Molander was soon to develop more fully behind the camera, "The film had little significance beyond its proof that in Sweden, as elsewhere, the microphone wa a cramping influence on the movement natural to the medium." And yet without mentioning how groundbreaking the films of the period were in the history of the relationship between the screenplay and the shootingscript, now that the photoplay had ended as a form of literature, Hardy continues by noting that during the early sound films photographed by Julius Jaenzon and directed by Victor Sjostrom both had tried to remain faithful to the old medium of silent film and its near precedence of plotline over dialougue by making the use of the microphone less noticeable during the film, possibly giving the new form more value. Paul Merzbach followed in 1931 with the film The False
Millionare
(Falska Millionaren), starring Fridolf Rhudin,
Gunnar Bj?rnstrand and Annalisa Ericson and photgraphed by Elner Akesson. Swedish director John Lindlof contributed the film Den Gamla Garden with Margareta Schöström,
     Rune Carlsten that year appeared in
Longing for the Sea (Langten till havet) directed by John W.
Brunius.
     Greta Garbo director Eric Petschler
that year directed Guken Cederborg, Greta Anjo and Marta Claesson in the
film Flickan fran Varmland. The cinematographer Hilmer Ekdahl
photographed his first film in 1931, En karleksnatt vid Oresund,
directed by Ragnar Widestedt and S?lve Cederstrand, the first film in
which the actress Maritta Marke was to appear. The film also stars
Elisabeth Frisk.
     Swedish film director Per Lindberg in 1931 established three theaters with actor Gosta Ekman, among them being included Vas-teatern and Konserthusteatern (The Large and Small room). Actor Hasse Ekman was given the play "Fredja" by Per Lindberg.
After returning to Sweden in hope that it was there that his daughters Victor Sjostromalso returned to the screen in a brief appearance with Swedish film directors Gustaf Molander and Gustav Edgren in the film
Motley Leaves/Gaudy Blade (Brokiga Blad) with Lili Ziedner, Edvin Adolphson, G?sta Ekman
and Annalisa Ericson. Sj?str?m had appeared in a short beauty contest
film, Froken, Ni linknar Greta Garbo (1931), along with Lars Hanson
and Karin Molander, both of whom had returned to Sweden, where Eivor
Nordstrom was chosen to be the most like Greta Garbo. Its photographer was
Ake Dahlquist, its director Per Axel Branner who had been the assistant
director to the film, The Markurells of Wadkoping, directed by
Victor Sj?str?m. Branner had directed his first film,
Tango-foxtrot, in 1930. Victor Sj?str?m's daughter, Guje Lagerwall
(Guje Sj?str?m, Guje Kanter) wrote the screenplays to two Swedish films,
Smeder pa luffen (Erik Hampe Faustman, 1949) and Lattjo med
Boccaccio
(Gosta Bernhard, 1949)- she appeared as an actress in seven
films that were made in Sweden. Gustav Molander directed both father and
daughter in films that were made in Sweden, Victor Sj?str?m in Love
(Karlek, 1952), and Guje Lagerwall in Franskild (1951). Also starring in Molander's film Franskild were Inga Tiblad, Irma Christensen and Marianne Löfgren.
Still photographs from the film The Rise and Fall of Susan Lennox scanned from the original negative and e-mailed through Yahoo by author Mark A. Vieira. Film clip linked with written permission from www.doctormacro.com. In a series of photo captions for the negatives that were in fact chosen for publication, author Vieira notes that by the time the portraits for The Fall and Rise of Susan Lennox were shot, Clarence Sinclair Bull had decided to no longer use a soft focus lens to photograph Greta Garbo, although he still used silk-covered softlights for the series.
In 1932, Gunnar Skogland wrote and directed the film Landskamp
with Fritiof Billquist, George Blomstedt, Gun Holmquist, Signhild Bjökman and Signe Lundberg-Settergren in her first film as an actress. The cinemaographer to the film was Elner Akesson. Actress Ingrid Bergman has a brief role in the film, as
does Corcordia Selander, and yet in her autobiography, My Story, Bergman
omits the name of Gunnar Skoglund entirely. Bergman, rather, relates an
account of her having been given a screen test with Gustaf Molander. "I
knew an actress named Karin Swanstr?m came into his shop from time to
time. She was a fine comedy actress, but now she was the artistic director
of Swedish Films", wrote Bergman. She quotes Karin Swanstr?m as having
told her that she would arrange a screen test for her within a week but
then abruptly telling Bergman, "No, wait a minute, I'll see if I can
arrange it now." It would be Gustaf Molander that would recommend her to
Edvin Adolphson until it would later become possible for her to film with
him.

Weyler Hildebrand in 1932 directed his first film, Baklaxan, as
well as the films Navvies of the Crown (Kronans rallare), Muntra musikanter,
starring Ulla Sorbon and Anna Olin and The Southsiders
(Soderkakr), starring Sigurd Wallen. Soderkakar was the first film in which actress Rut Holm was to appear. Gosta Rodin directed his first
film that year, Tva hjartan och en skuta, starring Birgit Sergelius, it being the first film in which Swedish actress Carin Swensson was to appear. Ragnar Arvedson was the
assistant director to the film Modern Wives (Modarna fruar, 1932), written and
directed by Edvin Adolphson based on the play written by Algot Sandberg. In 1932, Gustaf Molander directed three films;
Black Roses(Svarta rosor), photographed by Ake Dalquist and
written by Ragnar Hylten Cavalius, it having starred Einar Axelsson, Karin
Swanstrom, Ruth Stevens and Carl Barcklind, We Who Use the Servant's Entrance (Vi som gar koksvagen), also photographed by Ake Dalqvist while scripted by Tancred Ibsen and starring Tutta Rolf, Karin Swanström, Tollie Zellman, Rene Björling and Rut Holm and Love and Deficit
(Karleck ock kassabrist), scripted by G?sta
Stevens, which had starred Tutta Rolf, Sigurd Wallen and Edvin
Adolphson. It was also the first film in which actress Alice Carlsson
was to appear. Jag gifta mig- aldrig, the first film in which Viran Rydkvist was to appear, was brought to the screen that year by director Eric Berglund. In 1932, John Lindlof directed Tva man om en anka, written by Borje Larsson and photographed by Julius Jaenzon. The film stars Tollie Zellmann. Sigurd Wallen in 1932 directed the films
The Boys of Storholmen (Pojkarna pa Storholmen) with Margit Manstad, Anna Olin and Ruth Stevens and Lucky Devils (Lyckans
gullgossar
), the assistant director to the film Ivar Johansson. Gustaf
Edgren that year directed Annalisa
Ericson
in the film Varmlanders (Varmlanningarna) with
Hilda Borgstr?m.

The first volume of poetry published by Swedish poet Gunnar Ekel?f,
Late Arrival on Earth (Sent pa jorden), was among the first editions of
1932. In Denmark, two years earlier a novel about a poet, Havoc (Haevaerk) had begun a look at the world by Danish literature than would become from then increasingly more modern, although its author, Tom Kristensen, had in fact begun publishing poetry in Denmark in 1920 with the volume Freebooter's dreams (Fribytterdromme). In 1932 it would be followed by the novel Jorgen Stein, written by Jacob Paludan. Playthings (Legetoj), written by H. C. Branner would introduce H. C. Branner to Danish audiences in 1935. Branner would later write the novels The Riding Master (Rytteren) in 1949 and No One Knows the Night (Ingen Kender Natten) in 1955.

AB Europa, housed at 10 Drottingatan in Stockholm, began its production of film in 1930, among the films it made
being those of Schamyl Bauman, beginning in 1933 with Secret Agent Svensson (Hemliga
Svensson
), starring Fridolf Rhudin and Weyeler Hildebrand and
Saturday Nights (Lordagskvallar), starring Ejvor Kjellstrom
and Ruth Weijden. Both films also star Edvard Persson.
In 1933, Eric Malmberg and Rune Carlsten directed the first film in
which Signe Hasso was to appear, House of Silence (Tystnadens
hus
), with Fritiof Billquist. The film was the first to be
photographed by cinematographer Harry Hasso, who also appears in the film
as an actor. Like Greta Garbo, Signe Hasso travelled to Hollywood to film,
her appearing in the films Heaven Can Wait (1943, Lubitsch) and
A Double Life (1947, George Cukor). Swedish actress Emy Hagman
appearred in her first film that year, Flickan fran varuhuset,
under the direction of Anders Hendrikson and Torsten Lundqvist, Brita
Appelgren having starred with her in the film. Much like Swedish actress Guje Lagerwall, the daughter of Victor Sjöström and wife of Sture Lagerwall, who was included in the early sound films of Sweden, Dora Söderberg, the daughter of playwright Hjamler Söderberg and wife of Swedish actor and director Rune Carlsten, was afforded one of her early on screen appearances in the film House of Silence.


Tancred Ibsen directed his first film in 1933, Vi som gar
kjokkenveien
, his following it with Synnove Solbakken (1934),
starring Victor Sj?str?m and Fritiof Billquist. Gustaf Molander in 1933
directed the film Dear Relatives (Kara slakten), starring
Ruth Stevens, Dora Söderberg and Sickan Carlsson and written by G?sta Stevens. Edvin
Adolphson
in 1933 directed the film What do Men Know (Vad veta
val mannen
), scripted by G?sta Stevens as well. Gosta Rodin in 1933
wrote and directed She or No One (Hon eller ingen, produced by Europa Film and starring Inga Tiblad,
Anna Olin and Sture Lagerwall.

Ivar Johansson in 1933 wroted and directed both Boman's Boy (Boman's pojke),
with Birgit Tengroth, and People of Halsingland (Halsingar), the first film in which Aurore
Palmgren was to appear, with Karin
Ekelund
, Inga Tiblad and Edit Ernholm. Elner Akesson photographed the film for Svensk Talfilm. The former film was adapted by Ivar Johansson from a play by Siegfried Fischer, the latter film from a play by Henning Ohlsson. Marmstedt that year directed
G?sta Ekman and Karin Kavli in the film Perhaps a Poet (Kanske
en Diktare
), co-scripted with Torsten Flodin. Also appearing in the
film is Gunnar Olsson, who would direct his first film Jarnets man,
with Hjalmar Peters, in 1935. Janets man was written by Johan-Olov
Johansson and photographed by Eric Bergstrand. In 1934 Marmstedt follwed
by directing Ake S?derblom and Astrid Marmstedt in the film Eva Goes
Aboard
(Eva gar Ombord) and Birgit Tengroth and Edvin
Adoplphson
in the film Atlantic Adventure
(Atlantaventyret), also co-scripted with Torsten Flodin.

Hasse Ekman appeared on screen in 1933 under the direction of Ragnar
Widestadt in the film Hemslavinnor, with Maj Tornblad, Anna
Widforss and Isa Quensel. Gösta Stevens wrote the screenplay to the film. That year Hasse Ekman also appeared in the film A Night on Smygeholm (En
Natt pa Smygeholm
) under the direction of Sigurd Wallen, the film also
starring Annalisa
Ericson
and Anna Olin. It was scripted by Gösta Stevens and photographed by Julius Jaenzon. Karin Ekelund appeared in her first film, Marriagable Daughters (Giftasvuxna dottrar), in 1933, the film directed by Sigurd Wallen from his own screenplay and photographed by Julius Jaenzon. Also starring in the film are Birgit Tengroth and Maritta Marke. Arne Bornebusch directed his first film in
1933, Hur behandlar du din hund?, it also being the first
screenplay written by Bengt Idestam-Almquist. The pen name of
Idestam-Alquist was Robin Hood, his having had been being being one of the early film critics of
Sweden, later publishing the volume Den Svenska Filmens Drama: Sjöström och Stiller (1938). Idestam-Almquist had appeared as an actor in the 1920 film
Gyurkovicsarna.

One of the more widely read of the early novels of Swedish author Eyvid Johnson, Here is Your Life (Har har du ditt live), was published in 1933, as was the novel Cape Farewell (Kap FarvI'm al), written by Harry Martinson.

Birgit Rosengren starred in her first two films in 1934, The Girls from the Old Town (Flickorna
fran Gamla St'an
) with Karin Ekelund and The Women Around
Larsson
(Kvinnorna kring Larsson), with Sture Lagerwall, the
director of both films having been Schamyl Bauman. The following year she
appeared in the film Flickor pa Fabrik directed by S?lve
Cederstrand. Schamyl Bauman followed in 1934 with the film Larsson's
Second Marriage
(Larsson i andra giftet).

     ivar Johansson that year directed Sickan Carlsson and Greta
Woxholt in the film The Song to Her (Sangen till henne) and Anna Olin in the film Uppsagd, both films photographed by Martin Bodin. Uppsagd was the first film in which actress Margit Andelius was to appear. Emil A Lingheim directed his first
film in 1934, Bland karparoch foreller. That year John W. Brunius
directed with Pauline Brunius and Karin Albihn the film False Greta (Falska
Greta
), John W, Brunius. Brunius had appeared as actor in the 1931
film Red Day (Roda dagen), directed by Gustaf Edgren and
written by S?lve Cederstand.

Photographed by Ake Dalqvist and directed by Edvin Adolphson and Sigurd
Wallen, The Count of the Monk's Bridge (Munksbrogreven,
1934-5) is a showcase for a young Ingrid Bergman. The screenplay is listed
as having been written by Arthur Natrop and Siegfried Fischer (Greven
fran Gamala Sta'n
) and the scenario as having been penned by G?sta
Stevens. In her autobiography, Ingrid Bergman recounts that during her
first scenes she had nearly overstepped her bounds with the actress Tollie
Zellman and that Edvin Adolphson had added a kind word for her.

Per G. Holmgren directed his first film in 1935, Havet lockar.
Gosta Rodin in 1935 directed Sickan Carlsson and Lili Ziedner in the film
Karlek efter noter, written by Torsten Lundqvist and photographed
by Martin Bodin. That year he also directed Sickan Carlsson for Svensk Talfilms in
The People of Smaland (Smalanningar), also scripted by Torsten Lundqvist. Rune Carlsten that year directed The Marriage
Game
(Aktenskaplekan) with Zarah Leander, Anna Olin and
Ingeborg Strandin, the assistant director to the film Rolf Husberg, the
script written by Ragnar Hylten-Cavallius. Directed by Edvin Adolphson for Wivefilm,
cowritten with the director by Oscar Hemberg and photographed by Elner
Akesson, Flickornas Alfred (1935) was to star Birgit
Tengroth
, Hilda Borstr?m and Olga Andersson. Andersson had starred
with Greta Garbo in 1920 in the short films photographed by Ragnar
Ring.


After having directed the film Under False Colors (Under
Flask Flagg
, 1935), scripted by G?sta Stevens and starring Tutta Rolf, in 1936 Gustaf Molander
directed the films The Honeymoontrip (Brollopsresan),
starring Karin Swanström, Ulla Sorbon, Karin Albihn, Edvin Adolphson and Anne Marie Brunius, The
Family Secret
(Familjens hemlighet), from a screenplay by G?sta
Stevens and On the Sunny Side (Pa solsidan), starring Edvin
Adolphson
, also from a screenplay written by Gösta Stevens. Ingrid Borthen
had a small role in the film The Family Secret, it being the first
film in which she was to appear. Gideon Wahlberg directed his first film
in 1936, Soder om landsvagen, starring Agda Helin, Inga-Bodil Vetterlund, Mim Ekelund. It is particularly interesting that Swedish silent film director George af Klerker also appears in the film as an actor. The King is
Coming
(Kungen kommer), written and direted that year by Ragnar
Hylten-Cavallius, starred G?sta Ekman, Birgit Tengroth, Ingeborg Strandin
and Tollie Zellman and was produced for Terra film.

The beautiful Finnish actress Ansa Ikonen began starring in film durring 1935-36 in two films under the direction of Finnish director Valentin Vaala, Everybody's Love (Kaikki rakastavat) and Surrogate Wife (Vaimoke), both having starred Tauno Palo.
Ragnar Arvedson in
1936 wrote and directed the films The Ghost of Bragehus (Spoket pa Bragehus),with Annalisa
Ericson, Poor Millionares (Stackars Miljonarer), with Anna Olin and Are We Married (A vi
giftas?
) with Karin Ekelund. Johan Ulfstjerna (1936), starring
Edith Erastoff and Einar Hanson, was directed by Gustaf Edgren and
photographed by Julius Jaenzon. Edgren followed with the film The Russian Flu (Ryska
snuvan
, 1937), starring Edvin Adolphson. Greta Garbo biographer
Fritiof Billquist appeared with Karin Ekelund and Birgit Rosengren in
Flickor pa fabrik (1935) directed by S?lve Cederstrand, the first film in which actress Britta Estelle was to appear. Arthur
Natorp in 1936 directed his first film, Karlek och monopol,
photographed by Eric Bergstrand. Anders Henrikson in 1936 directed the film Annosera!, photographed by Martin Bodin. Gunnar Fischer that year worked as assistant cameraman with Swedish cinematographer Elner Akesson under the direction of Anders Henrikson on the film He, She, and the money (Han, hon, och pengarna), starring Ruth Stevens, Kirsten Heiberg and Maritta Marke. The film was editied by its assistant director, Rolf Husberg. Swedish actress Margit Andelius starred as the protagonist of Raggen, That's Me (Det ar jag det) that year, the film having been directed by Schamyl Bauman and photographed by Hilmer Ekdahl. The film also starred Anna Olin, Aino Taube, and Isle-Norre Tromm.

Swedish poet Harry Martinson had two novels that appeared in bookstores during 1935 and 1936, Flowering Nettles (Nassloma blomma) and The Way Out (Vagen ut), respectively.

Cinematographer Ake Dahlqvist may very well be presently be known to audiences in the United States as the cameraman behind the viewfinder to the film Intermezzo (1936) directed by Gustaf Molander from a script he co-scripted with Gösta Stevens. Both Hasse Ekman and Anders Henrikson appear in the film, as do Inga Tiblad, Britt Hagman, Swedish silent film star Emma Meissner and the young actress that still directs audiences to the film by her having later remade it in the United States, Ingrid Bergman. Intermezzo was the first film in which actress Millan Bollanden, who was seen onscreen with Ingrid Bergman often, was to appear.

In her autobiography, Ingrid Bergman writes that she was reluctant when
asked to film One Night Only (En Enda Natt, 1937) and that she had hoped to star
in the film A Woman's Face (En kvinnas Ansikte, 1936). Both films were directed by
Gustaf Molander and scripted by G?sta Stevens. "Look," she had said, "I'll
only do your film if you let me do the girl with the distorted face." She
quotes Gustaf Molander as having said, "The technicalities of the
distorted face were fine, but I couldn't get the story right." There is
and account given by Ingrid Bergman of her having had been being asked to
supply an eding to the plotline before the shooting of the film had
finished and of the concluding scenes of the film having been based upon
her idea. One Night Only was photographed by Elner Akesson, the
assistant director the film having been Hugo Bolander. A Woman's
Face
was photographed by Ake Dahlqvist.

"From letters to his wife during the summer and autumn of 1936 we can very well follow the work on the script, the planning, and the shooting of Under the Red Robe". Begnt Forslund chronicles the retSwedish film director Victor Sjostrom to film directing in England with a script based on the writing of Stanely Weyman, which had already appeared on the stage as dramatized by Edward Rose.

Signe Hasso appeared on the screen during 1937 under the direction of Schamyl Bauman, starring in the film Witches Night (Haxnatten) with actresses Ruth Stevens, Gerda Bjorne and Marta Lindlof. John Lindlof in 1937 directed the film Odygdens beloning. Gustaf
Molander in 1937 directed Tutta Rolf in the film Sara lar sig
folkvett
, written by Gösta Stevens and photographed by Julius Jaenzon. Jaenzon also that year photographed the film Cleared for Action/Clearly to drabbning (Klart till drabbning), in which Edvin Adolphson directed his daughter, Swedish actrees Anna-Greta Adolphson. The film was scripted by Weyler Hildebrand and Torsten Lundqvist and also stars Ake Söderblom and Sickan Carlsson. Gosta Rodin wrote and directed the film The Pale Count (Bleka greven), photographed by Sven Thermaenius. Produced by Svensk Talfilms, the film stars Anna Olin, Karin Ahbihn and Aina Rosen.

Alice Babs starred in her first film in 1938, Thunder and Lightning/Flash and Thunder (Blixt och dunder),
directed by Anders Henrikson and also starring Hasse Ekman, Frida Winnerstrand, Marianne Aminoff and Sickan Carlsson. Also starring in her first film in 1938 was Sif Ruud who appeared with Linnea Hillberg, Olga Hellquist, Gudrun Lendrup and Birgit Rosengren in Kloka gubben, directed by Sigurd Wallen and written by Gosta Werner. Hortensia Hedstrom that year appearred in her first film, Svensson ordinar allt, directed by Theodor Berthels. Co-scripted by Berthels and Gosta Werner for Svea Film, it stars Swedish silent film director George af Klerker, Karin Albihn, Sally Palmblad, Helga Hallen and Olga Hellquist. Anders Henrickson brought Tutta Rolf, Mimi Pollack and Karin Swanström to the screen in 1938 in the film The Great Love (Den stora Karleken) which he wrote and directed for Wivefilm, Stockholm. That year Gunnar Fischer photographed his
first film, Only a Trumpter (Bara en trumpetare), scripted by Torsten Lundqvist and
also directed by Henrikson. Director Nils Jerring in 1938 brought Wera
Lindby and Ruth Weijeden to the screen in the film Figurligt talat,
photographed by Martin Bodin. Ragnar Hylten-Cavallius that year directed
Lars Hanson and Karin Ekelund in the film Wings around the
Lighthouse
(Vingar kring fyren), Cavallius also having the
screenplay.

Gustaf Molander in
1938 directed Ingrid Envall in her first film Dollar, starring Georg Rydeberg, Tutta Rolf,
Kotti Chave and Birgit Tengroth. Filmed from a script co-written by Stina
Bergman, the cinematographer to the film was Ake Dahlqvist. Dollar begins as a film of interior shots and Molander tracks with his characters as he cuts between close shots, oftent cutting with the camera one moment and abruptly cutting to brief dialouge shots, or in between fairly quick dollyshots and close shots positioned from varying angles during an early card game scene. In the adjacent interior scene, Ingrid Bergman dances with her own shadow and the shadow of her parrot as Molander's camerawork is moved into a drawing room with four women, each crossing the set untill the men and women later pair together, a pairing together that locates the rest of the film in ther interior of a ski resort. The pace established by shot legnth then slows down and the editing becomes less pronounced as the men and women are the kept together more often as a group, more often in full shot as the storyline relies almost entirely upon dialouge for its development as each character crosses the set from one conversation to the next. Molander often cuts quickly after a line of dialouge, often constructing the shot-structure of the individual scenes by cutting on action. The is only one character other than the one played by Edvin Adolphson introduced during the film, that of an actress from the United States, Mary, the dollar princess.

Sven Thermaenius that year photographed the film Du
gama du fria
, written and directed by Gunnar
Olsson
and starring Hilda Borgstr?m, Karin Ekelund, Sigurd Wallen and
Gull Natrop. The film was produced by AB Europafilm. Kaj Aspegren directed his first film, Studieresan, in 1938, photographed by Erik Bergstrand and starring Signe Lundberg-Settergren and Marta Dorff.


In 1939, Victor Sjostrom appeared as an actor in two films,The Old
Man's Coming (Gubben kommer) ,with Birgit Tengroth, Olaf
Molander, Aino Taube and Tora Teje, directed by Per Lindberg, and in
Towards New Times (Mot nya tider), directed by Sigurd Wallen
and starring Carl Barklind, Anna Olin and Marianne Aminoff. Per Lindberg
in 1939 also directed the film Glad dig din Ungdom, starring Birgit
Tengroth, Hilda Borgstr?m, and Anna Lindahl. Photographed by Ake
Dahlqvist, the film was co-scripted by Vilhelm Moberg with Per Lindberg
and Stina Bergman from his novel Sankt Sedebetygi>
Weyler Hildebrand in 1939 directed Sickan Carlsson and Ake Ohberg in
Landstormens lilla Lotta, scripted by Torsten Lundqvist. Rolf
Husberg
began as an assistant director to the film Giftasvuxna
dottrar
(1933). He directed his first film, Midnattsolens in
1939. Gustaf Molander used the talented pioneer Julius Jaenzon in 1939 to photograph Filmen om Emelie Hogvist
starring Signe Hasso and Elsa Burnett, the first film in which Karin Norgren
had been given a small role. Elsa Burnett also starred in Molander's film
Ombyte fornojer, with Tutta Rolf. Both films were scripted by Gösta Stevens. Signe Hasso would also that year appear in the film Us Two (Vi Twa), directed by Schamyl Bauman and starring Ilse-Norre Tromm and Gunnar Bjornstrand in an early film role. Schamyl Bauman in 1939 directed
Anders Henriksson and Sonja Wigert in the film Her Little Majesty
(Hennes Lilla Majestat), the film also starring Swedish film
directors Carl Barklind and Gunnar Hoglund. Also directed by Schamyl Bauman that year was the film Efterlyst, photographed by Hilmer Ekdahl and starring Edvin Adolphson, Birgit Rosengren, Isa Quensel, Carin Swensson and Linnea Hillberg. Anders Henrikson in 1939 directed the film Valfangare, with Tutta Rolf. Ragnar Frisk directed Ann-Margret Bergendahl in her first film in 1939, Den Moderna Eva, photographed by Karl-Erik Alberts and starring Ake Uppström. Siv Ericks appeared in her first film that year Rosor varje kvall, directed by Per Axel-Branner. Also in the film are Carl Barklind, Hjordis Petterson, Ake Ohberg and Tore Lindwall. Gideon Wahlberg in 1939 directed Ann Mari Udderberg and Naemi Briese in the film We from the Theater (Vi som gar scenevagen). Gosta Rodin during 1939 directed the film Charmers at Sea (Sjocharmorer) produced by Fribergs Filmbyra and photographed by Albert Rudling. The film stars Aino Taube, Karin Swanstrom, Marianne Lofgren and Ullastina Rettig.


Both Sigurd Wallen and Olaf Molander appeared in front of the camera with Britt-Lis Edgren in the 1940 film A Big Hug (Stora Famnen), Britt-Lis the daughter of the director of the film, Gustaf Edgren. The film was photographed by Julius Jaenzon and also stars the Swedish actresses Gerda Lundqvist and Signe Hasso. Gustaf Molander in 1940 directed the film A, but one lion (En, men ett lejon) with
Fridtjof Mjoen and Annalisa Ericson. The screenplay to the film was
written by G?sta Stevens and again, Molander would be behind the camera while Julius Jaenzon was the film's photographer. On the marquee that year, along with the name
Aino Taube, was the film Everybody at His Station (Alle man pa
post
) written by Torsten Lundqvist and directed by Anders Henrikson,
the assistant director to the film Ragnar Fisk. That year, Alf Sj?berg
wrote and directed the films They Staked Their Lives (Med livet
som instats
) and the first film in which the actresses Barbro Flodquist and Hedvig Lindby were to appear, and Blossom Time (Den blomstertid), photographed by Harald Berglund with Goran Strindberg as assistant cameraman and starring Sture
Lagerwall, Gerd Hagman, Carl Barklind and Arnold Sj?strand. Barbro
Flodquist also that year appeared in the film Hanna i societen,
directed by Gunnar Olsson and starring Elsa Carlsson and Carl
Barklind. Schamyl Bauman in 1940 directed the films Heroes in Yellow in Blue (Hjaltar i gult och blatt), starring Tollie Zellmann, Barbro Kollber and Emy Hagman, and An Able Man (Karl for sin hatt), starring Birigit Tengroth, Vera Valdo and Gull Natrop starring Ake Ohberg directed his first film in 1940, Romance (Romans) in which Fritiof Billqvist appeared. Introduced to the screen that year by Ragnar Arvedson, Eva Henning premiered in the film Gentleman att hyra, photographed by Martin Bodin. Sigge Furst and Mimi Pollack also appear in the film. June Night (Juninatten) was directed in 1940 by Per Lindberg.

Swedish Film actress Greta Garbo

Still photograph from the film Two Faced Woman scanned from the original negatives and emailed via Yahoo by author Mark A. Vieira.

After directing June Night, the following year Per Lindgren directed the the film The Talk of the
Town
(Det sags pa stan, 1941), photographed by Ake Dalqvist and
starring Marianne Lofgren, Gudron Brost, Elsa Marianne von Rosen, Mona
Martenson, Elsa Widborg and Bojan Westin, in what was to be her first appearance on the screen. Bojan Westin has recently appeared in several films, including Brevbaravens hemlighet (2006, Hanna Andersson), Koffein (2007, Akesson, Olsson) and Dorotea i dodsriket (2007, Kati Mets). The assistant director to the film Talk of the Town was Arne Mattsson. Produced by Svea Film, Stockholm, it was one of
the first two films in which Eva Dahlbeck was to appear, the other being
Only a Woman (Bara en kvinna), directed by Anders Henrikson for Wivefilm, Stockholm and photographed by Elner Akesson. Also starring in the film is Karin Ekelund. Anders Henrikson also that year directed Anio Taube in Life Goes On (Livet gar vidare), which he cowrote with Begnt Idestam-Almquist. The film also stars Hasse Ekman. Director Gunnar Skoglund that year teamed Karin Ekelund and Edvin Adolphson in the film Woman on Board (En Kvinna Omboard), photographed by Hilding Bladh and also starring Sigge Furst. Ragnar Arvedson in 1941 directed the
films Sa tukta en akta man, the assistant director to the film Arne
Mattsson. Ung dam med tur, photographed by Harald Berglund and
written by Torsten Floden, was also directed by Ragnar Arvedson in 1941,
it starring Sonja
Wigert
, Elly Christiansson, Stina Hedberg and Ake Ohberg. That year
G?sta Cederlund directed his first film, Fransson den
forskracklinge
with Hilda Borgstr?m, Rune Carlsten, Elof Ahrle, Sonja
Wigert and Marianne Lofgren as well as the film Uppat igen starring
Elof Ahrle, Vera Valdor and Berit Rosengren.

In 1941, Gunnar Olsson directed Mai Zetterling in her first film,
Lasse-Maja, photographed by Harald Bergland and written by Torsten
Floden, in which Zetterling starred with Margit Manstad and Sture
Lagerwall
. She next appeared in Sunshine Follows Rain/Rain
Follows the Dew
(Driver dag faller regn, 1946), directed by
Gustaf Edgren and based on a novel by Margit Soderholm. Alf Sj?berg in
1941 directed the film Home from Babylon (Hem fran Babylon)
starring Gerd Hagman and Arnold Sjostrand. Gustaf Molander in 1941
directed Tonight or Never (I natt-eller aldrig) with Tollie
Zellman and Bright Prospects (Den ljusnade framtid) with
Elly Christiansson, Julius Jaenzon the photographer of the latter. Produced by Svea Film in 1941, Cosy Barracks (Hemtreunad i kasern) was directed by Gosta Rodin and photographed by Erik Bergstrand. The film stars Tollie Zellman, Anna-lisa Baude, Annalisa Ericson and Rut Holm.

Anders Henrikson in 1942 both directed and starred with Sonja Wigert in
both Youth in Chains (Ungdom i bojor) and Fallet Ingegerd Bremssen, which,
starring Ivar Kage and G?sta Cederlund, was the first film in which Siv
Thulin had been given a small role. Anders Henrikson
also starred with Sonja Wigert inBlod och eld (1945), the assistant
director to the latter Bengt Palm. Gunnar Skoglund in 1942 directed Maj-Britt Nilsson in the film Varat gang. Gunnar Fischer worked as an assistant camerman in 1942 under Swedish cinematographer Ake Dahlqvist on a film edited by Oscar Rosander, Jacob's Ladder (Jacobs Stege), directed by Gustaf Molander and starring Birgit Tengroth, Marianne Lofgren and Viran Rydkvist. Gustaf Molander also that year directed Hilda
Borgstr?m, Erik Hampe Faustman, Eva Dahlbeck and Anders Ek in the film
Ride Tonight (Ride This Night/Ride Tonight, Rid i natt, 1942), based on a novel by Vilhelm
Moberg. Doctor Glas (Doktor Glas, 1942), adapted from a
novel by Hjamar Soderberg by Rune Carlsten and directed by Gustaf Edgren,
was to include the actresses Hilda Borgstr?m and Irma Christenson, it also
having been the first film in which Victor Sj?str?m's daughter, Guje
Lagerwall, was to appear. Hugo Bolander directed his first two films in
1942, Three Glad Fools (Tre glada tokar), and Sextuplets (Sexlingar). Bolander had been the
assistant director to the film Steel (Stal, 1940), directed
by Per Lindberg, a film that had starred not only Alf Kjellin and Gudron Brost, but Signe Hasso, Karin Swanstrom and Torre Svennberg.


The following year, Erik Hampe Faustman directed his first film ,
Night in the Harbor (Natt i hamn, 1943) and scripted the film, its
cinematographer having had been being Gunnar Fischer. Eric Hampe Faustman
also directed the film Sonja that year, which he co-scripted with
G?sta Stevens, it having starred Birgit Tengroth, Else Albiin, Gunn
Wallgren and Sture Lagerwall. Sonja was photographed by cinematographer Hilding Bladh. Hampe Faustman that year appeared as an actor in Gustaf Molander's film Alsking, self give me (Alsking jag ger mig), which was also written by Gösta Stevens. Starring with Faustman in the film were Sonja Wigert, Elsa Carlsson, Marianne Lofgren and Carin Swensson. Haustman followed in 1944 by directing the film
The Girl and Devil (Flickan och Djavulen), starring Hilda
Borgstr?m and Torgny Anderberg.

In 1943, Olof Molander directed Mimi Nelson in her first film, I
Slew
(Jag drapte), also starring Mai Zetterling, Anders
Henrikson, Hilda Borgstr?m and Irma Christenson. That year G?sta Cederlund
directed her in the film Kungsgatan, which also starred Barbro
Kollberg. Ragnar Frisk in 1943 directed For lack of evidence (I
brist pa brevis
), scripted by Per Holmgren and Arne Mattsson and
starring Birgit Tengroth and Holger Lowenadler. Frisk also that year directed Nils Poppe in the film The Actor (Aktoren), photographed by Hilmer Ekdahl and co-starring Sigge Furst and Agda Helin. Begnt Janzon in 1943 wrote
and directed the film We Met the Storm (Vi Motte Stormen),
with Stig Jarrel and Anna-Lisa Baude, for AB Nordisk-Filmproduktion. Ivar Johansson that year wrote and
directed the film Young Blood (Ungt Blod), with Toivo Pawlo
and Olof Widgren. Johansson also that year directed Ake Gronberg in the film Captured by a Voice (Fangad av en rost) photographed by Ernst Westerberg and produced by Film AB Lux. Sigge Furst that year also starred in the film Ghosts, Ghosts (Det Spokar, Det Spokar) directed by Hugo Bolander and produced by Film AB Image. Eva Henning that year appeared in the film The Awakening of Youth (Nar
Ungdomen vaknar
), directed by Gunnar Olsson. Cinematographer Sven
Nykvist photographed his first film, along with photographer Olle
Nordemar, in 1943, In the darkest Corner of Smaland (I morkaste Smaland), under the direction of
Schamyl Bauman, the film starring Sigurd Wallen, Eivor Landstrom, Eric Petschler and Gull Natrop. Silent
film director Eric Petschler also appears in the film. Gunnar Skoglund in 1943 directed the film En var i vapen starring Ingrid Borthen, Eric Hampe Faustman, Rita Sandstorm, Fritiof Billquist and Birgit Lindkvist in what was to be her first film appearance. Bjorge Larsson during 1943 directed the film A Girl for Me (En Flickan for mej) for Europa Film, it starring Sickan Carlsson, Kerstin Lindahl and Hilda Borgstrom. Ragnar Arvedson in 1943 brought Irma Christenson and Ann-Margret Bjorlin to the screen in the film Herre med Portfolj.

Gustaf Molander in 1944 brought the film The Invisible Wall/The Unseen Wall (Den osynliga muren), starring Inga Tiblad, Irma Christenson, Hilda Borgström and Britta Brunius, to the screen. Swedish film directors Rune Carlsten and Eric Faustman also appear in the film. In 1944, Gunnar Ollsson directed The Turn of the Century (Nar
seklet var ungt
) his following it in 1945 with The Happy Tailor
(Den Glade skraddaren), both films being among those in which
Fritiof Billquist had appeared. The Turn of the Century (Nar seklet var ungt) had been
the first film in which Brita Billsten had been given a small role, her
having had appeared in it with Stina Hedberg, Marianne Gyllenhamar and Mim Eklund. En dotter fodd, the first film in which Ruth Kasdan was cast, was directed in 1944 by Gosta Cederlund and starred Barbro Kollberg. Ake Ohberg in
1944 directed Swedish Film actress Karin Ekelund in the film Snowstorm
(Snostromen), photographed by Harald Berglund. Also appearing in the film are Liane Linden and Helga Brofeldt. Ivar Johansson that year directed Birgit Tengroth in
the film Skogen ar var arvedel, the assistant director to the film
Arne Mattsson. Weyeler Hildebrand in 1944 directed Sonja Wigert, Mona Martenson and Gunnar
Bj?strand in the film My People are Not Yours (Mitt folk ar icke ditt). Ragnar Falck, who appeared as an actor in several Swedish Films during 1930-1960, directed
his first two films, Fia Jansson from the South Side (Fia Jansson fran Soder), for Kungsfilm, and Your Relatives Are Best (Slakten ar
blast
), for Wive Film, that year. Fredrick Anderson in 1944 brought Ingid Bouthen,
Annelie Thureson and Eivor Rolke to the screen in the film Karleck och
allsang
. Rune Carlsten that year wrote and directed the film Count only
the Happy Moments
(Rakna de Lyckliga Stunderna Blott), with
Sonja Wigert, Arnold Sj?strand and Eva Dahlbeck. Gunnar Skoglund in 1944 brought Vibeke Falk and Monicka Tropp to the screen in the film The Clock of Ronneberga (Klockan pa Ronneberga). Alf Sjoberg that year wroted and directed the film The Royal Hunt (Kungajakt), starring Inga Tiblad.

Filmed in Sweden and directed by Carl Th. Dreyer, Two People
(Tva Manniskor, 1944) was not released in Denmark due to low box
office returns and a second Swedish film to be directed by Dreyer was
cancelled. Dreyer reportedly had wanted Anders Ek and Gunn Walgren to
portray the couple upon which the on screen action of the film is
centered, his describing the female character of the film as being "young
warmblooded and sensual". When filmed the couple was portrayed quite
differently by Wanda Rothgart and George Rydeberg.

Sailors (Blajackor 1945), directed by Rolf Husberg with
Annalisa Ericson, was photographed by Gunnar Fischer. Rolf Husberg directed Siv Hansson and Ann Sophie Honeth that year in the film The Children from Frostmo Mountain (Barnen fran Frostrnofjallent), photographed by Sven Nykvist.

Molander in 1945 directed Galgmannen and in 1946 directed
It's my Model(Det ar min modell),starring Alf Kjellin and
Maj-Britt Nilsson, both films photographed by Ake Dalqvist. The screenwriter of It's My Model was Rune Lindström. Rune Lindstrom that year wrote and directed the film Aunt Green, Aunt Brown and Aunt Lilac (Tant Grun, Tant Brun, och Tant Gredelin), starring Britta Brunius, Elsa Ebbensen-Thorblad, Irma Christenson and Sigge Furst. Cinematographer Max Wilen
photographed his first film that year, Det var en gang, directed by
Arne Bornebusch with Mona Martenson. Ake Ohberg in 1945 brought Barbro
Kollberg to the screen in the film Girls in the Harbor (Flickor
i hamn
) and Eva Henning to the screen in Rosen pa Tistelon,
G?sta Folke the asistant director to the latter film. Bjorge Larsson in
1945 directed Annalissa Ericson, G?sta Cederlund and Sture Lagerwall in
the film A Charming Miss (En fortjussande Froken) and the film The Thirteen Chairs (13 stolar), photographed by Sven Nykvist. Adapted
from the novel published by Vilhelm Moberg in 1933, Mans Kvinna,
starring Edvin Adolphson, Birgit Tengroth and Gudron Brost was that year
directed by Gunnar Skoglund; coscripted by Vilhelm Moberg, Ankeman
Jarl
, starring Ingrid Backlin and Maritta Marke was that year directed
by Sigurd Wallen. The assistant director to the latter was Lennart
Wallen. The Serious Game (Den Allvarsamma leken, 1945), based
on a novel by Hjalmar Soderberg and starring Viveca Lindfors and Eva
Dahlbeck, would be directed by Rune Carlsten.

That year was also to mark the appearance of a new director of Swedish film, Ingmar Bergman, his writing his own screenplay to the film A Young Girl's Troubles (Kris) as an adaptation of the play A Mother's Heart (Moderdyret), penned by Leck Fischer. The cinematographer to the film, which starred Inga Landgre as its central character, was Gösta Roosling and its editor was Oscar Rosander. It was during 1942 that Ingmar Bergman had begun adapting screenplays for Svensk Filmindustri. As noted by Donner, the first had been a screen version of the novel Katinka, written by Astrid Varing; noted by Peter Cowie the first had been a novel entitled Scared to Live. In his autobiography, Images, Ingmar Bergman writes without noting the author of the novel, and explains that after he was given an office,the script department was under Stina Bergman, to whom, it almost completely belonged, seemingly.


















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